Shinshiu (meaning New Sect) is the name of a Japanese sect of Buddhists, who are the adherents of one of the most remarkable developments of Buddhism, unique in many points. Buddhism has been called the Protestantism of Asia; the Shinshiu followers are the Protestants of Buddhism. Many of the distinctive tenets of Buddhism so called are: repudiated by the Shin sect. Their priests marry and rear families, eat flesh and drink wine. Nuns, monks, and monasteries are unknown within their pale; schools, or rather real theological seminaries, taking their place. Penance, fasting, pilgrimages, prescribed diet, isolation from society, and, generally, amulets and charms, are proscribed. The Protestant doctrine of justification by faith in. Buddha is their central tenet, in opposition to the common Buddhist idea of salvation by works. Devout prayer, purity and earnestness of life, and trust in Buddha himself as the only worker of perfect righteousness, are insisted upon. They scornfully reject the worship of most of the idols venerated by the other sects. The Scriptures of Slinshiu, instead of being kept in the Sanscrit and archaic Chinese, as in other sects, are translated into the vernacular, and their daily reading urged. The Shin temples are built, not on mountains and in. secluded. places, but on the main streets, and in the crowded and business centres of great cities, with altars gorgeous in. their magnificence. The Shin priests are more highly educated than those of any other Japanese sect, and the average intelligence of their worshippers is superior. They profess never. to intermeddle with political affairs, receive no government aid, and pride themselves on their self- reliance. When travelling, they assume the lay dress, and in time of war claim the right of defence. Whole battalions of sacerdotal soldiery have been recruited from the Shin sect in the wars of the past. Their influence is probably greater than that of any other sect in Japan. Within the last decade, they have organized their training-schools on the model of Christian theological seminaries, and have carefully studied "the weapons and methods of Christian missionaries. They have lately sent out successful missionaries to China, Corea, and the Riu-Kiuv (Loochoo) islands. There are six subsectsa or divisions in Shinshiu, who have in all 13,718 temples. Other names; for the Shin sect are Monto ("Followers of the Gate") and Ikto, from the. initial of one of their canonical books, both terms referring to their singleness of aim and unity of organization.. Shinshiu was founded by Shinran (born 1171, died 1262), who was a pupil of Honen, founder of the Jodo sect, and a man. of noble descent. When in Kioto, at thirty years of age, he married a lady of noble rank, and thus set the example of marriage, and gave the newly founded sect a prestige it has ever. since enjoyed with; both mikado and shogun (tycoon).- So great has been the numerical intellectual, and religious influence of Shinshiu upon the nation, that the mikado Mutsuhito, by a rare act of imperial favor, honored the memory of Shinran by bestowing upon him the, posthumous title, by imperial letters patent, of Kenshin Daishi (Great Revealer of Light), on Nov. 28, 1876.Though wary and ceaselessly active in their endeavors to counteract Christianity, now so aggressive in Japan, they have resisted every effort of the government to amalgamate them with other sects and their enemies and rivals of late have charged them with being so much like Christians that separation from the latter is inconsistent. (W. E. G.)

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