Sheldon, Gilbert, archbishop of Canterbury, was the youngest son of Roger Sheldon of Stanton, in Staffordshire, England, and was born there July 19, 1598. He was admitted a commoner of Trinity College, Oxford, in 1613; was made Bachelor of Arts Nov. 27, 1617; and Master of Arts May 20, 1620; was elected fellow of All Souls College in 1622, and about the same time entered holy orders. He became domestic chaplain of the lord keeper of Coventry, who gave him a prebend of Gloucester. He was some time rector of Ickford, in Bucks, and was presented to the rectory of Newington by archbishop Laud. He received the degree of Bachelor of Divinity Nov. 11, 1628, and was presented by the king to the vicarage of Hackney, in Middlesex. On June 25, 1634, he was made Doctor of Divinity, and in March 1635, was elected warden of All Souls. Dr. Sheldon became chaplain in ordinary to Charles I, and was afterwards clerk of the closet. During the rebellion, he adhered to the royal cause, and in February, 1644, was sent to attend the king's commissioners at the treaty of Uxbridge. In April 1646, he attended the king at Oxford, and was witness to the vow made by him to restore to the Church all impropriations lands, etc., if it pleased God to re-establish his throne. While the king was at Newmarket in 1647, Dr. Sheldon attended him as one of his chaplains. He was ejected from his wardenship by the Parliament visitors on March 30, 1647 (or 1648), and imprisoned. He was set at liberty on Oct. 24, 1648, and retired to Snelston, in Derbyshire. Soon after the king's return, he was made dean of the Royal Chapel, and on Oct. 28, 1660, was consecrated bishop of London. The Savoy Conference (q.v.) was held (1661) at his lodgings. He was elected to the see of Canterbury, Aug. 11, 1663, and on Dec. 20, 1667, chancellor of Oxford, but resigned that office July 31, 1669. He died at Lambeth, Nov. 9, 1677.