Shang-te, a deity of the Chinese, often spoken of in terms which seem to point him out as, in their view, the Supreme Being, the only true God. This is, however, a much disputed point. Mr. S.C. Malan, in his work Who is God in China? argues in favor of Shang-te as identical with the God of the Christians. Others, (and among them Rev. Mr. M'Letchie) maintain that: Shang-te is not a personal being distinct from matter, but a soul of the world. The word is often used by Chinese classical writers to denote the power manifested in the various operations of nature, but is never applied to a self-existent Almighty Being, the Creator of the universe. In the sacred book Shoo-king there are no fewer than thirty-eight allusions to a great power or being called Shang-te. The name itself, as we learn from Mr. Hardwick, imports august or sovereign ruler. To him especially is offered the sacrifice Looe, and the six Tsong, beings of inferior rank, appear to constitute his retinue. In the Shoo-king it is stated, and perhaps with reference to the nature of Shang-te, "Heaven is supremely intelligent: the perfect man imitates him (or it), the ministers obey him (or it) with respect, the people follow the orders of the government." Others maintain that in the very oldest products of the Chinese mind no proper personality has ever been ascribed to the supreme power. Heaven is called the father of the universe, but only as earth is called the mother. Both are said to live, to generate, to quicken; are made the objects of prayer and sacrifice. Heaven is a personification of ever present law, order, and intelligence. By these writers Shang-te is believed to be nothing more than a great "Anima mundi," energizing everywhere in all the processes of nature, and binding all the parts together in one mighty organism.