[many Sham'mai] (Heb. Shammay', שִׁמִּי, desolate; Sept. 1Ch 2:28 Σαμμαϊv; but ver. 32 Α᾿χισαμμά [combining Ahi with Shammai]; ver. 44 Σεμαά; 4:17 Σεμμαϊv, v.r. Σαμμαά, Σαμαϊv, Σεμεϊv), the name of three men.
1. The elder of two sons of Onam, of the tribe of Judah (1Ch 2:28,32). B.C. cir. 1618.
2. Son of Rekem and father (founder) of Maon, of the tribe of Judah (1Ch 2:44-45). B.C. post 1618.
3. Sixth child of Ezra, of the tribe of Judah, by a first wife (1Ch 4:17). B.C. post 1618. He was possibly the same called Shimon (q.v.) in ver. 20. "Rabbi D. Kimchi conjectures that these were the children of Mered by his Egyptian wife Bithiah, the daughter of Pharaoh. SEE MERED. The Sept. makes Jether the father of all three. The tradition in the Quoest. in Libr. Paral. identifies Shammai with Moses, and Ishbah with Aaron."