Shal'man (Heb. Shalman שִׁלמִן, perhaps Persian, fire-worshipper; Sept. Σαλαμάν; Vulg. Salmana), a name occurring but once (Ho 10:14, "as Shalman spoiled Beth-arbel in the day of battle"). It appears to be an abbreviated form of Shalmaneser (q.v.). Ewald, however, speaks of Shalman as an unknown king, but probably the predecessor of Pul (Die Propheten, 1, 157; see Simson, Der Prophet Hosea, p. 287). The Sept. reading כּשָׂר for כּשֹׁד, "as he spoiled," renders ὡς ἄρχων, and the Vulgate, confounding Shalman with the Zalmunnah of Judges (ch. 8), gives, from another misreading, a domo ejus qui judicavit Baal, so that Newcome ventures to translate "Like the destruction of Zalmunnah by the hand of Jerubbaal" (Gideon). Indeed, the Vatican edition of the Sept. has ἐκ τοῦ οἴκου τοῦ ῾Ιεροβοάμ, and the Alexandrian has ἐκ τοῦ οἴκου ῾Ιεροβάαλ. — misreadings of the word Beth-arbel. The Targum of Jonathan and Peshito- Syriac both give "Shalma;" the former for בֵּית אִרבֵּאל reading בּמִאֲרָב, "by an ambush," the latter בֵּית אֵל, "Beth-el." The Chaldee translator seems to have caught only the first letters of the word "Arbel," while the Syrian only saw the last two. The Targum possibly regards "Shalman" as an appellative, "the peaceable," following in this the traditional interpretation of the verse recorded by Rashi, whose note is as follows: "As spoilers that come upon a people dwelling in peace, suddenly by means of an ambush, who have not been warned against them to flee before them, and destroy all." SEE BETH-ARBEL.