Septuagint, Linguistic Character of The
Septuagint, Linguistic Character Of The.
The language of the Sept., from its close connection with that of the New Test., has been a fruitful source of discussion, and various theories on the subject have been maintained with considerable vehemence. Thus Isaac Vossius maintained that the Alexandrian Jews were studious of Attic Greek. Scaliger used the phrase "Hellenistic tongue;" Salmasius contended for a "Hellenistic Greek," and maintained that the diction or style of the Sept. was not a form of Greek which had its origin in Alexandria, or in other parts where the Macedonian rule had prevailed, but that it was the style of translators, or of authors whose acquaintance with the language was imperfect. It was the Greek of the unlearned, and therefore ἰδιωτικός, or unpolished; it was used to interpret Hebrew ideas and phrases, and thus it was ἑρμηνευτικός, or the language of interpreters. R. Simon used the term "synagogue Greek" to express a style of Greek which was so full of Hebrew words and Hebraisms as to be scarcely. intelligible to readers who had no knowledge of Hebrew or Chaldee. He illustrates this by the Spanish Jews' translation of the Bible into the Spanish tongue which can be understood only by those who have some knowledge of Hebrew as well as Spanish. Later critics have, however, admitted the existence of an Alexandrian dialect, from which the Sept. has derived some of its features, though these are not its most prominent characteristics. Thus Hody, quoting Crocus, says:
The Greek translators of the Scriptures are to be described as Hebraists, Chaldaists, and. Alexandrists. Their version is full of Hebrew, Chaldee, and Alexandrian words and phrases. They render word for word, and often where a passage is thus translated, the words are Greek, but the Hebrew construction is retained" (De Bibl. Text. Orig. 2, 4, 23).
As the text from which the Alexandrian version was made did not have the vowel-points, it would be very interesting to know how the translators pronounced the Hebrew, and the more so since some critics who delight in hunting after various readings would make the Sept. the standard for the Hebrew text. But here we are at a loss, and all that we know we can only make out from the version itself. Commencing with the alphabet, the pronunciation of the letters is given to us in the Lamentations of Jeremiah, where the verses are arranged alphabetically. The letters of the alphabet, thus commencing the different verses, are expressed fully, as the following scheme will show:
א=῎Αλεφ. ל = Λάμεδ. ב =Βήθ. מ= Μήμ. ג = Γίμελ. נ=Νούν ד =Δάλεθ. ס=Σάμεχ. ה =῎Η. ָע=Αἴν. ו =Οὐαῦ. פ= Φῆ. ז =Ζαίν. צ=Τσαδή. ִח=῞Ηθ. ק-Κώφ. ט =Τήθ ר = ῾Ρήχς. י = Ι᾿ώδ.. ש=Χσέν. כ= Χάφ ת =Θαῦ That ו and ת were pronounced wav and tav we may infer from the fact that v is always equivalent to the Hebrew 5, thus לוי =Λευί. From the version itself we see that the letters had the following pronunciation:
א, in itself inaudible (like the Greek spiritus lenis), receives its intonation from the vowel, as אהרן, Α᾿αρών; אֵלקנה , Ε᾿λκανά. Sometimes it has the spiritus asper, as אברה, Α῾βραάμ; אליחו, ῾Ηλίας; אלון (Jg 9:37), ῾Ηλών.
ב is β, sometimes φ: יקבאּזאב (Jg 7:25), Ι᾿ακεβζηφ; also υ, רחוב (Jos 19:30), ῾Ρααῦ;. Sometimes ב is expressed by μβ, as נבח , Νουβᾶ'/; זרובבל, Ζερουμβαβέλ: or by μ alone, as לבנה, Λεμνά; ויבשם (1Ch 7:2), ῾Ιεμασάν ג is γ, sometimes κ, as נפג, Ναφέκ; דואג, Δωήκ: also χ, as שרוג, Σερούχ.
ד is δ, but also θ, as מטרד (Ge 36:39), Ματραϊvθ. ה is, like א, either inaudible, as הבל, Α᾿βέλ; or it has the spiritus asper, as הימן, Αἱμάν. ו is υ, חוה =῎Ευα, לוי =Λενί. Sometimes it is β, as שוה, Σαβύ (Ge 14:5), and שוע (38:12), Σαβά. Sometimes it is not expressed at all, as ושתי, Α᾿στί; ושני (1Ch 6:13), Σανι.
ז is ζ, seldom σ — as אליפז, Ε᾿λιφάς (Genesis 36; but 1 Chronicles 1, Ε᾿λιφαζ); very seldom 10, as בוז (Ge 22:21), Βαύξ.
ִח is inaudible at the beginning, middle, and end of a word. Often it is χ, חם, Χάμ; נחור, Ναχώρ; sometimes κ. as טבח (Ge 22:24), Θαβέκ. ט is τ, seldom δ, as ופוט (Ge 10:6; 1Ch 1:8), Φούδ; or δ,'as אליפלט (2Sa 5:16; 1Ch 14:5), Ε᾿λιφαλάθ. י is ὶ, as יעקב, Ι᾿ακώβ; but it is also I when followed by רי8 8ש, as ירמיהו, ῾Ιερεμίας.
כ is χ, sometimes κ, as סבתכא (Ge 10:7), Σαβαθακά; seldom, γ, as כפתרים (ver. 14), Γαφθωρείμ. ל נ ר are λ ν ρ. מּ is μ, but sometimes is, β as נמרוד, Ναβρώδ; שמלה (1Ch 1:47), Σεβλά. ס שׁ שׂ are σ. ָע is inaudible, as עפרון, Ε᾿φρών; or with the spiritus asper, as עשו, ῾Ησαῦ: it is also γ as עמורה, Γόμοῤῥα;"or κ (at the end of the word), as ארבע (Ge 23:2), Α᾿ρβόκ. פ is φ, sometimes π, asצלפחד, Σαλπαάδ. צ is σ, seldom ζ, as עווֹ (Ge 10:23; Ge 22:21), Οὔζ. ק is κ, sometimes χ, as קטורה (Ge 25:1), Χεττουρά; חקופא (Ne 7:53), Α᾿χιφά: seldom γ, as חלק (Nu 26:30), Χελέγ. ת is θ, sometimes τ, as תחש, Τοχός; גתר, Γατέρ. A greater difficulty we have in fixing the pronunciation according to our vowel-points, but in general the following rules may be laid down:
Kamets ( ) is a, as אָדָם Αδάμ; חָם, Χάμ. Pattach () is a, as אֲהִרֹן, Αὰρών. Tsere () = η: אשֵׂר, Α᾿σήρ; ישראֵל, Ι᾿σραήλ. Segol ()= ε, as אֲבַימֶלֶך, Α᾿βιμελέχ.
Cholem (וֹ= ω: יעקֹב, Ι᾿ακώβ; יוֹסŠ, Ι᾿ωσήφ. Kamets chatuph ()= o, as גָליִת:, Γολιάθ. Long chirek (י ) = ι or ει: עֲנָמַים , Α᾿ναμίμ, μείμ; מָכַיר, Μαχίρ, είρ. Short chirek (.) = ι or υ, the latter very seldom: פלַשׁתַי, Φυλιστεῖμ; שַמעון , Συμεών. Shurek (וּ)= ου: לוּד, Λούδ; יבוּס, Ι᾿εβούς. Kibbuts () = ο: בֻּקַי, Βοκκί; יפֻנֶה, ῎Ιεφοννή.
This may be regarded as a most general outline for the vowels; for a closer examination, upon which we cannot here enter, will show that these principles are not always carried out. As to Sheva, its pronunciation is governed by the following vowel; thus פעוֹר is Φογώρ; רחוֹב, ῾Ροόβ; פלַשׁתַים, Φυλιστίμ; שׁפטיָה, Σαφατία; סִבתכָא, . Σαβαθακάi.' This vocalization exercises also its influence upon the vowel preceding the Sheva; thus בַלעָ is Βαλαάμ; מַבשָׂם = Μαβασάμ, etc. Dagesh lene is not expressed in the Sept., but the dagesh forte usually is, as צַלָּה, Σελλά; מנשה, Μανασσῆ; and it is also found, where the Hebrew text has no dagesh, as רבקה = ῾Ρεβέκκα. Sometimes the dagesh forte of the Hebrew is not expressed at all, as חֻשָּׁם, Α῾σώμ; הִכּסֻלוֹת (Jos 19:18), Χασαλώθ..
With these preliminary remarks we have paved our way for the manner in which grammar has been used by the translators of the Sept.; but here the difficulty is greater still, for the translators, as can be seen from their mode of translating, had not the language, but the translation, of the Scripture in view, and this must account for many grammatical peculiarities which we find so often in the Alexandrian version. Thus e.g. the present is very often used for the perfect, especially in λέγω'and ὁράω, as in Ge 15:2, אבר ויאמר, λέγει δὲ Α῾βραάμ; 37:29, והנה אין יוסŠ, καὶ οὐχ ὁρᾶ'/ Ι᾿ωσήφ , or the infinitive before a definite verb is expressed by a participle or a noun. The active is often exchanged for the passive, or vice versa, as (Ge 12:15) וִתֻקִח האשה, καὶ εἰσήγαγον.. Leaving aside all further remarks on these points as not exactly belonging to our object, we now come to the subject at issue, as to the linguistic peculiarities. Here we notice –
1. Unusual formations of words and verbs, viz.:
ἃβρα, a favorite slave, Ex 2:5. αιχμαλωτιζειν, to make a prisoner, Eze 12:3. ἄκαν, a thorn, 2Ki 14:9. ὰλγηρός, sorrowful, Jer 10:9. ὰμφιάζεσθαι, to put round about, Job 29:14. ἀμφίασις, a garment, Job 22:6. ἀναθεματίζειν, to devote to destruction, De 13:15. ἀποκιδαροῦν , to strip the head of, Le 10:6. ἀποπεμπτοῦν, to take up the fifth part, Ge 41:34. ἀσβόλη, soot, La 4:8.
βουνίζειν, to accumulate, Ru 2:14. γλωσσόκομον, a chest, 2Ch 24:8. γρηγορειν, to watch, Ne 7:3. διαρτᾶν, to deceive, Nu 23:19. ἔκθεμα, an edict, Es 8:17. ἐκτοκίζειν, to put on interest, De 23:10.
ἐντομίς, a cutting, Le 19:28. εὐδοκεῖν, to approve, Le 26:41. θεριστρον, a veil, Song 5:7. καταχωρίζειν, to enter in a register, 1Ch 27:24.
λυτρών, a sewer, 2Ki 10:27. μαγειρεῖον, a kitchen, Eze 46:23. μαγειρισσα, a female cook, 1Sa 8:13. μακροηερεύειν, to live long, De 5:33. μανδόη, a coat of mail, 1Sa 17:38. πρωτοτοκεύειν, to appoint as first born, De 21:16. πρωτοτόκια, the birthright, Ge 25:32. ῥώξ, a grape, Isa 65:8. σαββατίζειν, to rest, Ex 16:30. σισοη, the corner of the head, Le 19:27. σκεπεινός, covered, Ne 4:13. σκηνοπηγία, Feast of Tabernacles, De 16:16. τελίσκειν, to complete, De 23:18. φυλακίσσα, a keeper, Song 1:6.
2. New meanings of words:
ἀγχιστεύω , to redeem, Ezr 2:62. ἄθυτον, abominable, Le 19:7. ἀπό = bir, Ge 48:10. διαφωνεῖν, to be missing, Nu 31:49. μετριάζειν, to be sick, Ne 2:2.
3. An abstract used collectively:
, the captive, Eze 11:25. διασπορά, living here and there, Ps 47:2. ἐξουθένημα, despised, Ps 22:6. ἱεράτευμα, priesthood, Ex 19:6.
4. Peculiar forms of words, as —
ἀγαθώτατος, Ge 47:6. ἀγαθώτερος, Jg 15:2. ἀπεκτάγκατε, Nu 16:41. ἁρπᾶ'/, Le 19:13. εἴποισαν, Ps 34:22. ἐλθάτω, Es 5:4. ἐπρονόμευσαμεν, De 3:7. ἐφάγοσαν, Ps 77:20. ἔφυγαν, 2Sa 10:14. ἑώρακαν, De 11:7. ἤλθοσαν, Ps 78:1. ἴδοισαν Job 21:20. ἴδοσαν, De 7:19. καμμύειν, Isa 6:10. κατείπαντες, Nu 14:37. κεκατήρανται, Nu 22:6. κεκράξαντες, Ex 22:23. κλίβανος = κρίβανος, Ge 15:17.
μαχαίρῃ, Ex 15:9. παρέστηκαν, Isa 5:29. ποιήσαισαν, De 1:44. πραθήσεται, Eze 48:14. φαγούμεθα, Ge 3:2.
5. Syntactic peculiarities, as —
ἀθωὸς ἀπό, καθαρός ἀπό, Genesis 8. ἁμαρτάνειν ἀπό, Le 5:15. ἁμαρτάνειν ἐν, Le 4:14. ἁμαρτάνειν ἔναντι, Le 4:2. ἁμαρατάνειν περί, Le 5:5. ἁμαρτάνειν τινί, Jg 11:27. ἀναμνησθῆαί τι, Ex 23:13. ἐξέρχεσθαί τι, Ex 9:29. ἐξιλάσκεσθαί τινι, Eze 16:63. εὐδοκεῖν τι, Ec 9:7. καταρᾶσθαί τινα, Ge 5:29. οὶκτείρειν ἀπό τινος, Jer 13:14. οὶκτείρειν τινά, Ps 4:2.
φείδεσθαί τινα, Job 16:5. φείδεσθαί τινι, Job 7:11.
6. To these we may add:
The construction of ἔρχεσθαι and similar verbs with the infinitive, as ἀπῆλθε φαγεῖν καὶ πιεῖν, Ne 8:12; κατέβη λούσασθαι, Ex 2:5. The vocative is expressed by the article, as σῶσόν με ὁ θεός μον, Ps 3:7
τίς is used as a relative, as μόνον τοῦτο τὸ ἱμάτιον ... ἐν τίνι κοιμηθήσεται, Ex 22:27; καὶ ἣξει τίνος αὐτοῦ ἡ οἰκία, Le 14:35.
The relative is connected with ἐάν, as πᾶν σκεῦος ὀστράκινον εὶς ὃ ὲὰν πέση ἀπό τούτων ἔνδον, ὅσα ἐὰν ἔνδον ῃ ὰκάθαρτα ἔσταί,, Leviticus 40:33; ἐν ἀγρῷ ου ἐὰν ῃς ἐκεῖ ... καὶ ὄψομαι ὅτι ἐὰν ῃ, 1Sa 19:3; ἄνθρωπος ... τινὶ ἐὰν ῃ ἐν αὐτῷ μῶμος, Le 21:17. The connection with ἐν instead of εὶς, as πορεύσομαι ἐν πύλαις ἄδου, Isa 38:10; ἄξει ἐν κρίσει, Ec 12:14. The connection of infinitives, as ευρου χάριν ἐν ὀφθαλμοῖς σου τοῦ ἐπιγνῶναί με,, Ru 2:10; πόλις αὕτη ἐγγὺς τοῦ καταφυγεῖν με ἐκεῖ, Ge 19:20; ἤγγισαν αἱ ἡμέραι Ι᾿σραὴλ τοῦ αποθανεῖν, 47:29; ἔστη τοῦ τίκτειν, 29:35; ) ην αὐτῶν τὰ ὑπάρχοντα πολλὰ τοῦ οἰκεῖν ἃμα., 36:7; ἠμβλύνθησαν οί ὀφθαλμοί αὐτοῦ τοῦ ὁρᾶ'/ν, 27:1.
7. Very prominent also are the Egyptian words which we find in the Sept.; and which betray the origin of the translation. The following are the most remarkable:
ἀλήθεια, truth, the rendering of תמים (Thummim, or perfections), in Ex 28:26; Le 8:8; and De 33:8. According to AEliau, ἀλήθεια was the name given to an image of sapphire stone, which was hung by a golden chain round the neck of the oldest and highest in rank of the Egyptian priests, who also held the office of judge. This was to denote the truth or justice with which he was to decide the cases which were brought before him. Hence it is supposed that the use of it for the Thummim of the high priest was derived; yet not without regard to the meaning of truth, as expressing the faithfulness and righteousness of God.
The word ῎Απις (Apis, the sacred bull of the Egyptians) occurs in Jeremiah 46 , 15: Διατί ἔφυγεν... ῎Απις ὁ μόσχς ὀ ἐκλεκτός σου (" Why is Apis, thy chosen calf, fled?"), where it is put as a paraphrase upon אבירי thy valiant ones," in the prophecy of the desolation of Egypt by the armies of Nebuchadnezzar. ἀρτάβη was a measure which is mentioned by Herodotus as being used in Egypt and Persia. It is put for the "homer" in Isa 5:10, and it also occurs in Daniel 13:3 (History of Bel and the Dragon).
ἄχει, or ἄχι, is an Egyptian word for the papyrus, or some other reed or growth of the marshes. It occurs both in the Hebrew and Sept. of Ge 41:2; Isa 19:7-8. It is also found in Ecclesiastes 40:16.
γένεσις, as applied to the "creation" of the world, was traced by Hody to Egyptian philosophy. But it seems rather to be derived from the תולדות, or genealogical narratives, of which the first book of the Pentateuch is composed.
ζύθος was a drink made from barley in Egypt, mentioned by Herodotus and Diodorus Siculus. It is found in the Sept. version of Isa 19:10, where it seems that שכר (strong drink) was read instead of שכר (merchandise). θήρα is found in Ps 132:16, "I will abundantly bless her provision." Jerome said that it was an Egyptian word for corn; and Hesychius mentions ἀθηρά as a decoction of milk and corn employed by the Egyptians — perhaps the medicine athara of which Pliny speaks. The Heb. ציד is, however, rendered θήρα (venison) in Ge 25; Ge 27.
ἱππόδρομος is used to denote a measurement of space in Ge 35:19; Ge 48:7. Jerome seems to have been perplexed by its introduction in these passages. Hody conjectures that the use of the word was suggested by the hippodrome which was constructed by Ptolemy Lagus at Alexandria, and was the scene of the events recorded in the 3d book of Maccabees. Thus the "hippodrome of Ephrath" signifies a certain distance from Bethlehem, which was nearly the interval between the goals of the Egyptian racecourse.
The word κόνδυ, used for a cup, in Ge 44; Isa 51, is of Persian origin.
κόσυμβος, a headband or fringed garment, the wearer of which is called κοσυμβωτός (Ex 28; Isa 3), was an Egyptian ornament.
νομός, in Isa 19:2, is not to be read νομός, "law," but has the sense of "province," or "district," Egypt being divided into νόμοί, governed by νομάρχαι, or prefects. In this sense it occurs in 1 Macc. 10:30.
οἴφι, was supposed by Jerome to be the Hebrew ephah; but Hesychius states that it was an Egyptian measure containing four χοίνικες (Nu 28:5; Jg 6:19).
πάπειρος, or πάπυρος, occurs in some of the Greek texts in Ex 2:3, the Egyptian paper reed, which was the material of the ark in which the parents of Moses concealed him. It was also called βίβλος, and hence the "vessels of bulrushes" in Isa 18:2 are called ἐπιστολαὶ βιβλίναι,.
παστοφόριονis used in the Sept. for the chambers and treasures adjoining the Temple inhabited by the priests and Levites (1Ch 9:26,33; Eze 40:18, etc.). They παστοφόροι are mentioned by Clemens Alexandrinus as a class of priests among the Egyptians.
῾Ραιφάν, in Am 5:26, was an Egyptian name for the sun god, or the king of heaven. It is put for כיון, Chiun.
σινδών, in Jg 14:12-13, was a fringed garment of fine linen which was made in Egypt.
στίβη, or στίμη, a dark purple or black, with which the guilty city of Jerusalem anoints her face to conceal her deformity (Jer 4:30). This is traced to στίμμις, a word of Egyptian origin.
σχοίνος, in Ps 139:2, "Thou hast searched my path," etc., was a word which, according to Herodotus, represented a measure of space or distance of sixty stadia.
ψονθομφανήχ, in Ge 41:45, answers to the Heb. Zaphlath Paaneah. The latter is supposed to be an Egyptian word, signifying "the food of the living;" but Josephus and Origen ascribed to it the sense of "discoverer of secrets," or "one to whom the future is revealed." Hody supposed that ψονθομφανήχ also had this sense in the later Egyptian; but Jerome explains it to be the "Savior, or Deliverer, of the world."
8. Another feature of this version is the many Hebrew and Chaldee expressions, as —
ἀπφώθ, Jer 52:19. μαωζαίμ, Da 11:38. ἀριήλ, 1Ch 11:22. ναγέβ, Eze 20:46. ἀριώθ, 2Ki 4:39. νέβελ, Ho 3:2. Δαρόμ, Eze 20:46. οὐλαμούζ, Ge 28:19. Ε᾿σεφίμ, 1Ch 26:17. ξαθμέν, 1Ki 19:4. ζακχῶν, 1Ch 28:11. σαβέκ, Ge 22:13. Ι᾿αμείν, Ge 36:24. σοάμ, 1Ch 29:2. Ι᾿αρείμ, Ho 5:13. φελλανί, 1Sa 21:2. μαναά, 2Ki 8:9. χαβραθά, Ge 41:7. μασμαρώθ, Jer 52:19. χοῤῥί, 2Ki 11:4. μαχβάρ, 2Ki 8:15.
These and many more words must not be regarded, as has usually been the case, as a mark of ignorance of the Hebrew, but as attempts to mix the vernacular with Hebrew expressions. Besides such Hebrew words, we find a great many Hebraisms; as Greek words with a Hebrew signification, Greek words in Hebrew constructions, Hebrew constructions, etc. — too many to be enumerated.
9. Another peculiarity of the Alexandrian version is that the same word is differently translated, not only in different books, but also in the same book. This point is the more important, as it evidently shows that the different books must have had different translators. A comparison of the Pentateuch with the book of Joshua will prove this beyond a shadow of doubt.
חמד, to desire, Ex 20:17; De 5:18; De 7:25, ἐπιθυμεῖν τι or τινός (Ex 34:24); but Jos 7:21, ἐνθυμοῦμαί τινος.
חפר, to explore, De 1:22, ἑφοδεύω; Jos 2:23, κατασκοπεύω טבל, Ex 12:22; Le 4:6,11; Le 19:9; Le 14:6,16,51; Nu 19:18; De 33:24; Jos 3:15, βάπτω: but Ge 37:31, μολύνω.
לכד, to storm: 1. λαμβάνειν; Jos 8:21; Jos 10:1,28,32,35,39; Jos 11:12,17; Numbers 32:39, 41, 42. 2. καταλαμβάνειν, Jos 8:19; Jos 10:3. καταλαμβάνεσθαι, Nu 32:4. κρατεῖν, De 2:34; De 4:5. κυριεύειν, Jos 15:16.
נסע, to break up, to move on: 1. ἀπαίρω, Ge 12:9; Ge 13:11; Ge 33:12,17; Ge 35:16; Ge 37:17; Ge 41:1; Ex 12:37; Ex 16:1; Ex 17:1; Ex 19:2; Nu 9:17,20-23; Nu 14:25; Nu 20:22; Nu 21:4,10,12-13; Nu 22:1; Nu 33:3,8-10, sq.; De 1:7,19,24; De 10:6-7,11; Jos 3:1,3,14; Jos 17:2. ἐξαίρω, Ge 35:5; Ex 13:20; Nu 1:51; Nu 2:9,16-17,24,31,34; Nu 4:5,15; Nu 9:19; Nu 10:5-6,17,21-22,25,28-29,33-35; Nu 11:35; Nu 12:15; Nu 13:1; Nu 11:3. αἴρω, Nu 2:17, and ibid. ἐξαίρω. 4. στρατοπεδεύω, Genesis 12:2; Ex 14:10; Deuteronomy 1:40. 5. κινέω, Ge 11:2; Ge 1:6. προπορεύομαι, Nu 33:7. ἀναζεύγνυμι, Ex 16:15; Ex 40:36-37.
These few examples may suffice.
אהל, a tent: 1. σκηνή, Ge 4:20; Ge 12:8; Ge 13:3,5; Ge 18:1-2,6,9-10; Ge 26:25; Ge 31:25; Ge 33:19; Ex 33:7-8,10; Nu 16:26-27; De 1:27; De 11:6; Jos 7:21-23; Jos 24:2. σκήνωμα, De 33:18; Jos 14:3. οικος, Ge 9:27; Ge 24:67; Ge 31:33; Jos 22:4,7; Jos 8:4. οἰκία, Ge 27:5. συσκήνιον, Ex 16:16.
ַטŠ is, 1. παιδία, Ge 45:19; Nu 14:3,31; De 1:39; De 3:6; Jos 14:2. τέκνα, De 2:34; De 19:3. ἔγκονα, De 29:11; De 12:4. συγγένεια, Ge 8:5. οικαί, Ge 21:6. ἀποσκευή, Ge 34:29; Ge 43:7; Ge 46:5: Ex 10:10,24; Ex 12:37; Nu 16:27; Nu 32:17,24,26; De 14:7. ἀποσκευαί, Nu 32:16. The same variations we find in adverbs, particles, propel nouns, but more especially in certain phrases.
See Thiersch, De Pentateuchi Versione Alexandrina (Erlangen, 1840); Frankel, Vorstudien der Septuaginta (Leips. 1841); Kaulen, Einleitung in die heilige Schrift (Freiburg, 1876), p. 85 sq. (B.P.)