In the early Church, not only did the more strict Novatians and Montanists esteem a second marriage unlawful, but that error was upheld by several councils (Cone. Nic. c. 8; Ancyran, c. 19; Laodic. c. 1; Neocaesar. c. 3; Constit. Apost. lib. iii, c. 2; Athenag. Legat.; Theophil. Ant. Ad Autol. lib. iii; Iren. Adv. Haer. lib. iii, c. 19). When the severity of this principle was relaxed with regard to lay members of the Church, it was still retained with reference to the clergy (Tertull. De Monog. c. 11; Ad Uxor. lib. i, c. 7; De Pus,it. c. 9). At length this law was rendered nugatory by the enforcement of celibacy among the clergy. SEE DIVORCE; SEE MARRIAGE.