Sandemanians, The followers of Robert Sandeman (q.v.). The leading doctrine of this sect is thus expressed in the epitaph on Mr. Sandeman's tomb in Danbury: "Here lies until the resurrection the body of Robert Sandeman, who, in the face of continual opposition from all sorts of men, long and boldly contended for the ancient faith that the bare death of Jesus Christ, without a deed or thought on the part of man, is sufficient to present the chief of sinners spotless before God." He describes justifying faith as nothing more nor less than "the bare belief of the bare truth" witnessed concerning the person and work of Christ. This, however, could only be entertained through divine teaching or illumination (see 1Co 2:14). The chief opinions and practices in which this sect differs from other Christians are their weekly administration of the Lord's supper; their love feasts, of which every member is not only allowed, but required, to partake, and which consists in their dining together at each other's houses in the interval between the morning and afternoon services; their kiss of charity, used on the occasion of the admission of a new member, and at other times when they deem it necessary and proper; their weekly collection before the Lord's supper for the support of the poor, and paying their expenses; mutual exhortations; abstinence from blood and things strangled; washing each other's feet, when, as a deed of mercy, it might be an expression of love (the precept concerning which, as well as other precepts, they understand literally); community of goods, so far that every one is to consider all that he has in his possession and power liable to the calls of the poor and the Church; and the unlawfulness of laying up treasures upon earth, by setting them apart for any distant, future, and uncertain use. They allow of public and private diversions, so far as they are unconnected with circumstances really sinful; but, apprehending a lot to be sacred, disapprove of lotteries, playing at cards, dice, etc. They maintain a plurality of elders, pastors, or bishops in each church, and the necessity of the presence of two elders in every act of discipline and at the administration of the Lord's supper. In the choice of these elders, want of learning and engagement in trade are no sufficient objection, if qualified according to the instructions given to Timothy and Titus; but second marriages disqualify for the office, and they are ordained by prayer and fasting, imposition of hands, and giving the right hand of fellowship. In their discipline they are strict and severe, and think themselves obliged to separate from the communion and worship of all such religious societies as appear to them not to profess the simple truth for their only ground of hope, and who do not walk in obedience to it. We shall only add that in every transaction they esteem unanimity to be absolutely necessary. This sect in England has considerably diminished, so that in 1851 only six congregations were reported as belonging to the body, each having a very small attendance. They probably number less than 2000 throughout the world. See Glas, Testimony of the King of Mertyrs; Sandeman, Letters on Theron and Aspasio (letter 11); Backus, Discourse on Faith and its Influence, p. 7-30; Adams, View of Religions; Bellamy, Nature and Glory of the Gospel (Lond. ed. notes), 1, 65-125; Fuller, Letters on Sandemanianism; Hagenbach, Hist. of Doctrines, 2, 430, 431.

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