Sam, Conrad

Sam, Conrad, known in German history as "the Reformer of Ulm," was born at Rothenacker in 1483. He studied Latin at Ulm, and in 1498 matriculated at Tubingen. In 1520 he was preacher at Brackenheim, near Heilbronn, and thoroughly devoted to the Reformation. Luther corresponded with him, and sent to him regularly his publications. Copies still exist with Luther's autograph: "An den Sam, Pf. zu Brackenheim, M. Luther, Dr." In 1524 he was driven away from Brackenheim, but found protection in Ulm, and an open door to preach the new doctrines. Here his labors resulted in the complete victory of Protestantism. His stentorian voice, his popular style and wit, filled the great cathedral with the eager populace. But soon great trials began. The eucharistic strife broke out. Sam gradually turned from Luther's views to the simpler and more radical doctrine of Zwingli, with whom, as also with Blarer, Bucer, and Oecolampadilus, he entered into close correspondence. After many struggles, the local authorities of Ulm were brought to consent to a formal reformation of Church rites and doctrine. The mass was abolished, images removed, cloisters closed, and the Zwinglian doctrines accepted. But victory, after seven years of valiant contest, was in its results for Sam fully as serious and full of danger as had been the open contest. So soon as the crown of victory was gained, the interest of the masses in religion cooled off; attendance on the sermons declined; vice reigned among high and low; the duties of Sam taxed his powers to the utmost; and, worse than all, the zeal of the oppressed party burst forth with new life. Romanists flocked out to every neighboring village to Join in their old rites; and High Lutherans labored in the same direction. In 1533 the health of the laborious preacher began to break down. Twice he rose from his sick bed to proclaim the Gospel afresh. It was too much. On June 20 he rested from his labors. See Keim, Reform. der Reichsstadt Ulm (1851); Herzog, Real-Encyklop. 20, 670-682. (J.P.L.)

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