Ritter, Karl, an eminent German geographer, was born Aug. 7, 1779, in Quedlinburg, Prussia. He studied at Halle, and after traveling in Switzerland, France, and Italy, was appointed professor extraordinary of geography at the University of Berlin in 1820. He was also director of studies of the military school. Ritter was the founder of general comparative geography, and exercised a decisive influence on its study, remodelling the whole science, and attracting general attention to its problems and results. He died at Berlin, Sept. 25, 1859. His chief works are, Die Erdkunde im Verhaltnisse zur Natur und Geschichte des Menschen (Berlin, 1822-54, 17 vols. [19 pts.]): — Europa, ein geographischhistorisch-statistisches Gemalde (Frankfort, 1807, 2 vols.): — Die Stupas, oder die architect. Monumente, etc. (Berlin, 1838): — Die Colonisirung von Neu-Zealand (ibid. 1842): — Blick auf das Nilquelland (ibid. 1844): — Der Jordan und die Beschiffung des Todten Meeres (ibid. 1850): — Ein Blick auf Palastina und die christliche Bevolkerung (ibid. 1852). Parts of his works have been translated into English by Gage: Comparative Geography (Edinb. 1865), and The Comparative Geography of Palestine and the Sinaitic Peninsula (ibid. 1866, 4 vols.). See Gage, Life of Karl Ritter, in the For. Quar. Rev. Oct. 1837; Hoefer, Nouv. Biog. Générale, s.v.