Righteousness (צֶדֶק, δικία, the quality of being right morally). The righteousness of God is the essential perfection of his nature, and is frequently used to designate his holiness, justice, and faithfulness (Ge 18:25; De 6:25; Ps 31:1; Ps 119:137,142; Isa 45:23; Isa 46:13; Isa 51:5-8; Isa 56:1). The righteousness of Christ denotes not only his absolute perfection (Isa 51:11; 1Jo 2:1; Ac 3:14), but is taken for his perfect obedience unto death as the sacrifice for the sin of the world (Da 9:24; Ro 3:25-26; Ro 5:18-19; Jer 23:6; Joh 1:29). The righteousness of the law is that obedience which the law requires (Ro 3:10,20; Ro 8:4). The righteousness of faith is the justification which is received by faith (Ro 3:21-28; Ro 4:3-25; Ro 5:1-11; Ro 10:6-11; 2Co 5:21; Ga 2:21). Righteousness is sometimes used for uprightness and just dealing between man and man (Isa 60:17), also for holiness of life and conversation (Da 4:27; Lu 1:6; Ro 14:17; Eph 5:9). The saints have a threefold righteousness:
(1.) The righteousness of their persons, as in Christ, his merit being imputed to them, and they accepted on the account thereof (2Co 5:21; Eph 5:27; Isa 45:24);
(2.) The righteousness of their principles, being derived from, and formed according to, the rule of right (Ps 119:11);
(3.) The righteousness of their lives, produced by the sanctifying influence of the Holy Spirit, without which no man shall see the Lord (Heb 13:24; 1Co 6:11). See Dickinson, Letters, let. 12; Witherspoon, Essay on Imputed Righteousness; Hervey, Theron and Aspasio; Owen, On Justification; Watts, Works, 3, 532, 8vo ed.; Jenks, On Submission to the Righteousness of God. SEE JUSTIFICATION; SEE SANCTIFICATION.