Ricci, Scipione, bishop of Pistoja and Prato, in the duchy of Tuscany, was born at Florence Jan. 9, 1741, of parents belonging to an ancient and honorable family. He was early brought under Jansenistic influence, and developed the tendencies so received while pursuing his etheological studies with the Florentine Benedictines. In 1766 he became a priest, and soon afterwards a canon and auditor at the nunciature of Florence. In 1775 he visited Rome, on the occasion of the enthronement of pope Pius VI, and became acquainted with the intrigues of the papal court, which sought in vain to secure his adhesion. He returned to Florence, and became vicar general to the archbishop, in which capacity he introduced a Jansenist Catechism. In 1780 he was made t bishop. In connection with duke Leopold of Tuscany, he now attempted to carry through reforms similar to those effected by Joseph II in the empire of Austria. The inquiries instituted with reference to the state of nunneries, etc., revealed scandalous irregularities and crimes against morality carried to even unnatural lengths; but the removal of Leopold to ascend the throne of the German empire, soon after the Synod of Pistoja (q.v.), brought the reformatory career of Ricci to a close by depriving him of his protector. The opposition of the populace caused him to resign his bishopric, and the papal bull Auctorem Fidei annulled the decrees of the Synod of Pistoja (Aug. 28, 1795). He submitted to the papal decision, after a long struggle, in 1799, was subsequently imprisoned on political grounds, and died Jan. 27, 1810. See De Potter, Vie de Sc. de Ricci (Brussels, 1825, 3 vols.; German, Stuttg. 1826, 4 vols.).