Responsales were a sort of residents in the imperial city in the name of foreign churches and bishops, whose office was to negotiate as proctors at the emperor's court in all ecclesiastical causes wherein their principals might be concerned. The institution of the office seems to have been in the time of Constantine, or not long after, when, the emperors having become Christians, foreign churches had more occasion to promote their suits at the imperial court than formerly. However, we find it established by law in the time of Justinian. It does not appear from that law that responsales were clergymen, but from other writings we may easily collect it. See Bingham, Christian Antiq. bk. 3:ch. 13:p. 6.