Recensions of the Old Testament

Recensions Of The Old Testament.

Under this head we present an outline of the history of the printed Hebrew text, not in the manner of Bartolocci, Wolf, and Le-Long-Mash, who give a long list of editions, but according to the different recensions which the Hebrew text underwent from time to time. The history of the unprinted text in its different periods has already been treated in the article OLD TESTAMENT SEE OLD TESTAMENT (q.v.). From the article MANUSCRIPTS SEE MANUSCRIPTS (q.v.) it will be seen that some of the most important MSS. are lost, and that they are only known to us from quotations. Yet a great many MSS. of the Old Test. existed in the different countries where Jews resided; and, as certain rules and regulations were laid down by the scribes according to which MSS. were to be written, it is but natural to infer that the MSS. of the different countries would. in the main, correspond with each other. After the invention of printing, many were desirous of publishing corrected editions of the Holy Scriptures, though they seldom gave an account of the materials they used. The history of the printed text is important as showing the manner in which our present copies of the Hebrew Bible mwere edited, and the sources available for obtaining the exact words of the original. In order to do this we must examine the different editions according to the text which they contain; we must know the different degrees of relationship in which the editions stand to each other; in a word, we must have the genealogy of the present editions.

Before entering upon the history of the printed text, we must mention, first, the editions of different parts of the Old Test. which formed the basis of later editions. The first part of the Hebrew Scriptures which was published is

(I.) תהלים, i.e. Psalteriumn Hebraicum cume Commentario Kimchii (237 [i.e. A.D. 1477], 4to, or sm. fol., sine loco). This very rare edition is printed on 149 folios, each page containing forty lines, but without division of verses, in majuscular and minuscular letters. Only the first four psalms have the vowel-points, and these but clumsily expressed. Each verse is accompanied by Kimchi's commentary. The pages and psalms are not numbered. The Soph Pasuk (i.e.:) is often omitted, especially when two verses stand by each other. For יהוה, often an empty space is left, sometimes omitted; in the space we often find an inverted he, ה, or an iuverted erted vav, ו, in the word יהוה; often the word is expressed by a sign of abbreviation, ", which generally occurs in the commentary. In Ps 119:1 we find יהיה, i.e. a yod for a vav. The letters כ and ב, and ד, ר and ד, ן and ז, ג and נ; עי and ש can hardly be distinguished from each other. The text is far from being correct, as a few examples will khow. Thus, inl Ps 1:3 we read פריה, inn Van der Hooght, פריוPs 1:5 "צריקם " צדיקיםPs 2:1 רֵיק " רַיקPs 2:2 "עבותימו " עבתימוPs 4:1 מזמור לדוד מזמור שירIt is divided into five books, as can be seen from superscriptions to Ps 41; Ps 42; Ps 89; Ps 106. As to the commentary, it is very valuable, because it contains all the anti-Christian passages of Kinmich, which are not found in later editions. At the end two epigraphs are printed, one in rhyme, the other in prose. See on this edition, Eichhorn, Repertorium, 6:134 sq.; De Iossi, Annnales Hebraeo-typogrcaphica, p. 14; and De Hebl aicce Typographice Origine ac Primitiis, etc., p. 13; Kennicott, Diss. Genesis in V. T. p. 91.

(II.) בולונייא רמב חומש עם תרגום אונקלוס ופירוש רשו, i. Pentateuchus Hebraicus cum Punctis et cumn Paraphrasi Chaldaica et

Commentario Rabbi Salomonis Jarchi (Bonononie, 242 [i.e. A.D. 1482], fol.). This copy is printed on 21S parchment leaves. Above and below the Hebrew Rashi's commentary is given, while the Chaldee is plinted on the side of the Hebrew. The text is very correct, and when compared with Van der Hooght's, the latter seems to be a reprint of this Pentateuch. The harmony of this Pentateuch with that found in Van der Hooght's edition is of the utmost imtportance for the printed text. In the first place, it corrobnorates the fact that, prior to the year 1520, the beginning had already been made to print the Hebrew text according to recent MSS. and the Masorah; in the seconld place, we must admit that all variations which are found in the Pentateuch printed at Sonieino in 1488, and which is a reprint of our edition, are nothing but negligences of the printer and corrector, in so far as these variations are not supported by the Masorah, and hebnce regarded as a testimony against the Masoretic text. In the third place, we see that all MSS. and editions which were prepared by Jews are of the utmost correctness, and that the variations are nothing but an oversight of either the copyist or printer. At the end is a very leungthy epigraph in Hiebrew, to give which in an English translation space forbids. See Eichhorn, Repertoriem. v, 92 sq., where the variations of this Pentateuch from Van der Hooght's text are given.

(III.) Ruth, Ecclesiastes, Canticum Canticorum, Threni cum Comm. Jarchi, et Esther cum Comm. Aben-Ezrae (sine anno et loco [but probably Bononiaie, 1482], fol.). See De Rossi, De Ignotis Nonnullis Anticuissimis Hebr. Textus Editionibus (Erlangen, 1782).

(IV.) Phrophetoe Priores ac Posteriores cum Comm. Kimchii (Soncino, 1485-86, 2 vols. fol.). On this, see Eichhorn, Repertorium, 8:51 sq.

(V.) Quinque Megilloth et Psalteriumn (Soncini et Casali, 1486).

(VI.) Quatuor Sacra Volumina, sen Riuth, Canticum, Threni et Ecclesiastes (ibid. 1486), with vowel-points, but with no accents.

(VII.) Hagiographa, with different commentaries (Neapoli, 1487).

(VIII.) Biblia Hebraica Integra cum Punctis et Accentibus (Soncilli, 248 [i.e. A.D. 148S], fol.). This is the first complete Hebrew Bible, with vowel- points and accents. It is very rare; only nine copties are known) to be extant, viz. one at Exeter College, Oxford; two at Rome, two at Florence, two at Parma, one at Vienna, and one in the Baden-Durlach Library.

According to Bruns (Dissertat. General. in V. Test. p. 442 sq.), the text is printed neither from ancient nor good MSS., but is full of blunders; and Kennicott asserts that it contains more than 12,000 variations ("qnue una editio ab exemplaribus hodiernis discrepat in locis plus quam 12,000"). How carelessly the printing was executed may be seen from the fact that ver. 16 of Ps 74:16 was interpolated after ver. 12 of Ps 89:12.

(IX.) Pentateuchus Hebraicus absque Punctis, etc. (1490).

(X.) Pentateuchus cum Haphtaroth et Megilloth Hebraice (sine loco et anuo, 4to [1490-95?]). For a long time only two copies were known to be extant; one in the Library of St. Mark at Florence, and one in the library of the cardinal Zelada. De Rossi, however, procured some copies.

Between 1490 and 1494 twelve other editions of different books were published, which we will not enumerate for want of space. In 1494 the Biblia Hebraica cum Punctis (4to) was published at Brescia; remarkable as being the one from which Luther's Geiman translation was made. The Royal Library at Berlin preserves that copy in a case. This edition has many various readings. As it cannot historically be proved that in the edition of this Bible MSS. have been used — on the contrary, in its lectionibus singularibus it agrees with the edition of Soncino (1488) — it is very probable that it was reprinted from the Soncinian text. A full description of this Bible is given by Schunlze, Vollstandigere Kritik (Berlin, 1766). A collection of various readings is given by le-Long-Mash in the Bibliotheca Sacra. Between 1494 and 1497 four other editions of different parts of the Hebrew Old Test. were published, which would make the number either of entire editions of the Old Test. or of single parts thereof about twenty- eight, and which all belong to the 15th century.

I. The first main recension was the Complutensian text of 1514-17. The editions which were published in the following centuries are mainly taken from one of the three main sources: the Complutensian Bible, the Soncinian Text of 1488, and Bomberg's (1525); yet there is a fourth class, which contains a mixed text, composed of many old editions. The Complutensian text was entitled Biblia Sacra polyglotta, etc. (in Complutensi Universitate, 1514-17). SEE POLYGLOT BIBLES. This was followed by the Heidelberg or Bertram's Polyglot (Sacra Biblia Hebraice,

etc.) (ex officina Sanctandreana, 1586, 3 vols. fol.; republished in 1599, 3 vols. fol. ex officia Commeliniana, and in 1616, 3 vols. fol. ibid.).

II. The second main recension, or the Soncinian text of 1488, was the basis of:

1. Biblia Rabbinica Bombergiana I, curavit F. Pratensis (Venice, 1517- 18S). SEE RABBINIC BIBLES.

2. Bomberg's Editions (4to): α. the first published in 1518; β. the second in 1521; γ. the third in 1525-28; δ. the fourth in 1533; ε. the fifth in 1544.

3. Munster's Editions of 1534, 1536, and 1546. The first contains the Hebrew text only, and was published by Froben at Basle. This edition is very rare and valuable on account of a collection of various readings, partly taken from MSS., which must have been collected by a Jewish editor. The other two editions have, besides the Hebrew, a Latin translation.

4. Robert Stephens's first edition (Paris, 1539-44, 4 vols.). This was not published as a whole, but in parts, each having a title. The first part that was published was ישעיה ספר, or Prophetia Isaice (ibid. 1539). Of variations, we subjoin the following: 1, 25,!סיגי; ve. 29, מאלים 3:16, וּמשִׁקרוֹת 6:5, נדמתי; 8:6, השלּח (dagesh in ל); ren. 13, מערצכם; 10:15, ואת ver. 16, כבודו; ver. 18, כמסום; ver. 33, ישפרו, etc. The second part contained the twelve minor prophets (1539); the third, the Psalms (1540); the fourth, the Proverbs (1540); in the same year also Jeremiah, Daniel, the five Megilloth; in 1541, Job, Ezra, Ezekiel; in 1543, Chronicles, the former prophets, and the Pentateuch. Richard Simon, in his Histoire Critique du V. T. p. 513, makes this remark on that edition: "Si l'on a egard a la beaute des caracteres, il n'y a gueres de Bibles qini approchent de celle de Robert Estienne in quarto; an moins d'une partie de cette Bible; mains elle iest pas fort correcte." The same is confirmed by Carpzov, Critica Sacra, p. 421: "Plurimis autem scatere vitiis, non in punctis niodo vocalibus et accenturnm, sed etiam in literis, imo in integris nonnunqiuamn vocibus deprehenditur," etc.; and Samuel Ockley, in his Introduct. ad Linguas Orient. cap. ii, p. 34, says: "Haec Roberti Stephani editio pulchris quidem characteribus est imnpressa... sed pluribus mendis scatet, qun libri pulcherrimi nitoarem turpiter foedarunt."

III. The third main recension was the Bombergian text of 1525. A new recension of the text, which has had more influence than any on the text of later times, was Bomberg's second edition of the Rabbinic Bible, edited by Jacob ben-Chajim (Venice, 1525-26, 4 vols. fol.). SEE RABBINIC BIBLES. This edition was followed by —

1. R. Stephens's second edition, published in parts, like the first (Paris, 1544-46, 16mo).

2. Boumberg's third Rabbinical Bible (1547-49). SEE RABBINIC BIBLES.

3. M. A. Justinian's Editions, published at Venice in 1551, 1552, 1563, and 1573.

4. J. de Gara's Editions, published at Venice, viz.:

a. an edition in 4to, 1566; b. an edition in 8vo, 1568; c. a Rabbinic Bible (1568, 4 vols. fol.) SEE RABBINIC BIBLES; d. an edition in 8vo, 1570; e. an edition in 4to, 1582; f. an edition with Rashi's commentary (1595, 4to); g. the same edition, published in 1607.

5. Plantin's Manual Editions, published at Antwerp, viz.: a. an edition in 4to, Svo, and 16mo, in 1566; b. a 4to edition in 1580; c. an 8vo edition in 1590.

6. Crato's Editions, published at Wittenberg in 1586 and 1587.

7. Hartmann's Editions, published at Frankfort-on-the-Oder in 1595-98.

8. Bragadin's Editions, published at Venice, viz.:

a. an edition in 4to and 12mno (1614-15); b. a Rabbionic Bible, SEE RABBINIC BIBLES (1617-18, 4 vols. fol.); c. a 4to edition (1619); d. a 4to edition (162S); e. a 4to edition, with Italian notes (1678); f. Biblia Hebraiea ad usum Judaeorum (1707, 4to); g. Biblia Hebraica, with a Spanish commentary in Rabbinic letters, "con licenza de' superiori" (1730, 4to).

9. . de la Rouviere's, or Celphas Elon's Editions, published at Geneva in 1618, in 4to, 8vo, and 18mo, are but a reprint of No. 3.

IV. The fourth main recension, or mixed text, was formed from Nos. II and III above, and was the Antwerp Polyglot, or Biblia Sacra Hebraice (Antwerp, 1567) SEE POLYGLOT BIBLES, which was followed by

1. The Paris Polyglot. SEE POLYGLOT BIBLES.

2. The London, or Walton's Polyglot. SEE POLYGLOT BIBLES.

3. Plantin's Hebrew-Latin Editions (Antwerp, 1571, 1583). In the first edition, in Ge 3:15, where the Vulg. has "ipsa conteret caput," with reference to the Virgin Mary, we read הות, instead of הוא, with a little circle above to indicate a different reading in the passage (היא). But this corruption was not made by Arias Montanus, the Latin translator.

4. The Burgos Edition, a very rare reprint of Plantin's first edition, published at Burgos, inn Spain, in 1581 (fol.).

5. The Geneva Editions, in Hebrew and Latin, published in 1609 and 1618 (fol.).

6. The Leyden Edition, published in 1613 (large 8vo).

7. The Vienna Edition, published in 1743 (large 8vo).

8. Reineccius's Polyglot and Manual Editions. See Reineccius.

V. Hutter's Text. Several older editions contributed to Hutter's Bibles:

a. Biblia Sacra, etc. (Hamburg, 1587, fol.). The outward appearance of this edition is splendid. In the margin the number of chapters is marked, and every fifth verse. From the preface we see that Hutter perused the editions of Bomberg, Munster, Stephens, etc. This edition was only printed once, but was published in 1588, 1596, and 1603 with new title-pages.

b. Biblia Sacra Polyglotta (incomplete; only the Pentateuch, Joshua, Judges, and Ruth) (Nuremberg, 1599). Hutter's Hebrew Bible was reprinted in Nissel's edition (Lugduni Batavorum, 1662, large Svo), with the title Sacra Biblia Hebraea ex Optimis Editionibus, etc.

VI. Buxtorfs Editions. A text revised accurately after the Masorahb, and therefore deviating here and there frtom the earlier editions, is furnished by Buxtorf's editions, viz.:

a. The Manual Edition (Basle, 1611, 8vo), which was followed by

1. Janssun's Edition (Amst. 1639), or עשרים וארבעה.

2. Menasseh ben-Israel's Edition (ibid. 1635, 4to). It would have been well if the editor had stated which four editions he perused, and to which the mistakes, which are not a few in this edition, are to be ascribed. Each page has two colummns. The order of the books is rather incommon; the Hagiographa and five Megilloth come before the earlier amid her prophets. As to the edition itself, R. Simon, in his Histoire Critique, p. 514, remarks. "L'edition en quarto de Menassa ben-Israel, a Amsterdam en 1635, a cette commodite, qu'elle est non seulement co'recte, mais aussi a deux colonnes; au lieu que les editions de Robert Estiennie et de Plantin sont a longues ligues et par consequent incommodes pour la lecture."

b. Buxtorf's Rabbinic Bible, SEE RABBINIC BIBLES, which was followed by 1. Frankfurter's Rabbinic Bible. SEE RABBINIC BIBLES.

VII. Joseph Athias's Text. Neither the text of Hutter nor that of Buxtorf was without its permanent influence; but the Hebrew Bible which became the standard to subsequent generations was that of Josemph Athias, a learned rabbi and printer at Amsterdam. His text was based on a comparison of the pievious editios itions with to SS.; one bearing the date 1209, the other a Spanish MS., boasting an antiquity of 900 years. The first edition of this new text was published at Amsterdam (1661, 2 vols. Svo), with the title, Biblia Hebraica correcta et collata cum Antiqonissimis et Accuatissismis Exemplaribus Manuscriptis et hactenus impressis. This is the first edition in which each verse is numbered. A second edition, with a preface by Lensden, was published in 1667. These editions were much prized for their beauty and correctness, and a gold medal and chain were conferred on Athias in token of their appreciation by the States-General of Holland.

VIII. Clodius's Editions were based upon the text of Athias.

a. Biblia Testamenti Veteris, etc. Opeia et studio Clodii (Frankfort-on-the- Main, 1677).

b. Biblia Hebraica, etc.; recognita a J. H. Majo (ibid. 1692).

c. Biblia Hebraica, etc.; ed. G. Chr. Burcklin (ibid. 1716, 4to). In spite of all the care which Burcklin bestowed upon this edition, some mistakes were left, as: Isa 1:16, רחקו four רחצו; 41:22, הרשנות for הראשנית Jer 4:18, על for עד; 23:21, עליהם for אליהם: Eze 40:25, סביע for סביב Ho 7:16, לאגם for לעגם; Am 7:10, בים for בית La 5:22, כי for כי אם; Ps 75:1, אמŠ for אסŠ, etc.

IX. Jablonski's Editions, or —

a. Biblia Hebraica cum Notis Hebraicis, etc. (Berolini, 1699, large 8vo or 4to). For this edition Jablonski collated all the cardinal editions, together with several MSS., and bestowed particular care on the vowel-points and accents, as he expresses himself more fully in his preface, § 6, 7.

b. Biblia Hebraica in Gratiam, etc.. (ibid. 1712, 12mo). This is the last of Jablonski's editions, but less correct; and the same may be said of the one published in 1711 (24mo) without the vowel-points.

X. H. Michaelis's Bible was based on Jablonski's first edition of 1699, and was entitled הקרש עשרים וארבע ספרי (Halle, 1720, 8vo and 4to). For this edition Michaelis compared five Erfurt MSS. and nineteen printed editions, which are all enumerated in the preface. This edition is much esteemed, partly for its correctness and partly for its notes, which, on account of the very small type, are a task to the eyes.

Michaelis's text is said to have been the basis of the so-called Mantuan Bible, edited, with a critical commentary, by Norzi (q.v.) (Mantua, 1742- 44).

XI. Van der Hooght's Text, or Biblia Hebraica, secundum ultimam Editionem Jos. Athia, etc. (Amst. 1705, 2 vols. Svo). This edition — of good reputation for its accuracy, but above all for the beauty and distinctness of its type — deserves special attention as constituting our present textus receptus. The text was chiefly formed on that of Athias; no MSS. were used for it, but it has a collection of various readings from printed editions at the end. The Masoretic readings are given in the margin. In spite of all the excellences which this edition has above others, there are still a great nmany mistakes to be found therein, as Bruns has shown in Eichhorn's Repertorium, 12:225 sq. The following editions are either printed from or based on Van der Hooght's text:

1. Proop's Editions, published at Amsterdam (1724,1762).

2. The Leipsic Edition, with Seb. Schmid's Latin translation (1740, 4to).

3. Forstem's Biblia Hebraica sine Punctis (Oxford, 1750, 2 vols. 4to).

4. Simoni's Editions (Halle, 1752, 1767, 1822, 1828; the latter two with a preface by Rosenmuller).

5. Houbigant's (q.v.) Edition (Paris, 1753,4 vols. fol.).

6. Bayly's Old Testament, in Hebrew and English (Loud. 1774, large Svo).

7. Kennicott's (q.v.) Vetus Testamentum (Oxford, 1776-80, 2 vols. fol.).

8. Jahn's Biblia Hebraica, etc. (Vienna, 1806, 4 vols. 8vo), with readings from De Rossi, Kennicott, etc. With injudicious peculiarity, however, the books are arranged in a new order; the Chronicles are split up into fragments for the purpose of comparison with the parallel books.

9. Boothroyd's Biblia Hebraica, with various leadings (Pontefract, 1810- 16, 2 vols. 4to).

10. Frey's Biblia Hebraica (Lond. 1812, 2 vols. 8vo), which was entirely superseded by

11. D'Allemand's Biblia Hebraica (ibid. 1822, and often). Van der Hooght's text is fountd in all English editions of the Hebrew Bible published by Duncan or Bagster, and is also made the basis of

12. The Hexaglot Bible, SEE POLYGLOT BIBLES (Lond. 1876, 6 vols. royal 4to).

13. The Basle Edition of 1827.

14. Hahn's Editions, published at Leipsic in 1831, 1832, 1833, 1839, and 1867; the last is superior to the former, as can be seen from the preface. Hahn's text has also been relprinted in the polyglot of Stier and Theile (Elberfeld, 1847, and often). There is also a small edition of Hahn's Bible (in 12mo), with a preface by Rosenmuller, in small but clear type. The last of this edition was published in 1868.

15. Theile's Editions (ibid 1840; 4th ed. 1873). This edition may be regarded as one of the best Hebrew Bibles according to Van der Hooght's recension. Wright, in his The Book of Genesis in Hebrew (Lond. 1S59), has followed Theile's text.

XII. Opitz's Text, or Biblica Hebraica cum Optimus Impressis, etc. Studio et Opera D. H. Optii (Kiloni, 1709, 4to). Opitz compared for this edition three codices and fourteen plinted editions, which are enumerated in the preface. This text was reprinted in

1. Zullichow Biblia cum Praefatione Michaelis (1741, 4to).

2. Evangelische deutsche Original-Bibel, containing the Hebrew and Luther's German translation (Kiloni,1741).

XIII. Editions with a Revised Text. With Van der Hooght's edition a textus receptus was given, which was corrected and improved from time to time. But the more the Masorah and ancient Jewish grammarians were studied, the more it was found that the present text, while on the whole correct, did not come up to the requirements and rules laid down by ancient grammarians, for, as Delitzsch observes, in the edition of the Old Test., the minutest points must be observed, trifling and pettifoggish as they may appear to the superficial reader; "yet ιῶτα ἕν ἢ μία κεραία maximi apud nos ponderis esse debet." Thus it came to pass that from time to time new editions of the Hebrew text were published על פי המסרה, i.e. in accordance with the Masorah. Of such editions we mention, passing over the editions of single parts of the Old Test.,

1. The edition publish ed at Carlsruhe (1836-37) and edited by Epstein, Rosenfeld, and others.

2. Philippsohn's Israelitische Bibel (Leipsic, 1844-54). But this edition, says Delitzsch, "quamquam textnm המסרה אל פי conformatum se exhibeie predicat, Masorethica diligentie vix ullum vestigiumn ostendit et vitiis plurimis scatet."

3. Letteris's Edition, or נביאים וכתובים ספר הקדש והוא תורה (Vienna, 1852, 2 vols. Svo). This edition was reprinted by the British and Foreign Bible Society at Berlin, with the corrections of Theophilus Abramson (1866, and often; latest edition, 1874). With an English title- page, "The Hebrew Bible, revised and carefully examined by Myer Levi Letteris," the society's edition was published (?) by Wiley and Son (N. Y. 1875).

4. A new edition, which, as we hope, will become the standard text for the future, is that commenced by Baeur and Delitzsch. As early as 1861, S. Baer, in connection with Prof. Delitzsch, published the ספר תהלים, or LiberPsanlorumn Hebraicus. Textuan Masorethicum accuratimvs quam adhutc factuan est expressit. . .¥ otas criticas adjecit S. Baer. Pruefatus est F. Delitzsch (Lipsiae, 1861). Mr. Baer, who for about twenty years has made Masoretic lore his specialty, the results of which he partly gave to the public in his תורת אמת (Ridelheim, 1852), was best adapted for such a task, and his connection with Prof. Delitzsch, one of the greatest living Hebrew scholars, is the best guarantee that the work is in able hands. An improved edition of the Psalms was published in 1874, under the title ספר תהלות, Liber Psanlmorum Hebraicus atque Latinus ab Hieronymno ex Hebrceo conversus. Consociata opera ediderunt C. de Tischendorf, S. Baer, et Fr. Delitzsch. In the preface, which is prepared by Delitzsch, we get a great deal of instructive matter as to the sources used for this edition. The Hebrew and Latin text is followed by Appendices Criticoe et Masorethicoe of great value to the student. Both these editions are published in 12mo. Besides the Psalms, which in their present size are probably not intended for a complete edition of the Old Test., they published —

(1.) תורה ספר בראשית הוא ספר ראשון לחמשה חמשי, Liber Genesis, Texture Masorethicum accuratissime expressit, e Fontibus Masoroe varie illustravit, Notis Criticis confirmavit, S. Baer. Prefatus est edendi operis adjutor Fr. Delitzsch (Liptsie, 1869, gr. Svo). The title fully indicates the contents of the work, which, however, we will specify. The Hebrew text is followed by

a. Specimen Lectionuum in hac Editione Genesis receptarum.

b. Loci Genesis Vocalem non productam in Medio Extrea move Versu retinentes.

c. Scripturoe Genesis inter Scholas Orientales et Occidentales controversoe.

d. Loci Genesis a Ben-Asher et Ben-Naphtali diverse Punctis signati.

e. Loci Genesis Consimiles qui facile confunduntur.

f. Loci Genesis Lineola Pasek notati.

g. Sectiones Libri Genesis Masorethicoe.

h. Conspectus Notarumn Masoreticarumn: α. Varietas scriptionis et lectionis; β. Adnotationes Masoreticce; γ. Clausula libri.

(2.) Liber Jesaioe .. (Lipsiae, 1872), containing the same critical matter as Genesis.

(3.) Liber Jobi. . . (ibid. 1875). Opposite the title-page stands a facsimile of the Codex Tshufutkale No. 8 a, which gives a good specimen of the Babylonian system of punctuation.

(4.) Liber Duodecim Prophetarum . . (ibid. 1878). The prefaces which precede the Hebrew text, in all these volumes give an account of the various MSS , editions, etc., which have been perused for each book, and aie full of instruction to the student of the sacred text. When completed, this edition of the Old Test. will form not a recension, but the recension of the best Hebrew text with which the student can be furnished.

Literature. — For the different editions of the Old Test., see Le-Long- Mash, Wolf, Bartolocci, Rosenmuller, and introductions to the Old Test., together with Davidson, Biblical Criticism, i, 137 sq., and De Rossi, De e nebraicc Typogtruphiu- Origine, etc. (Parma, 1776); id. De Typograuphiua Hebraeo-Fue-irariensi, etc. (ibid. 1780); id. De Iginotis Nonnullis Antiquissinis Hebr. Textus Editt. etc. (Erlangen, 1782); id. Annales Hebrceo - typogragphici, etc. (Parma, 1795). For various readings, see the editions of Kennicott, Michaelis, Jahin, Reineccius- Meissner-Doderlein; the Varice Lecliones of De Rossi (ibid. 1784, 4 vols.); Davidson, The Hebrew Text of the Old Testament, etc. (Lond. 1855) — following, as Davidson does, De Rossi and Jahn, his work, besides being deficient, cannot always be relied upon; Pick, Horce Samaritance, or a Collection of various Readings of the Samiaritan Pentateuch compared with the Hebrew and other Ancient Versions, in Libl. Sacra (Andover, 1876-78); Strack, Katalog der hebr. Bibelhandschriften in St. Petersburg (St. Petersburg, 1875). For critical purposes, see, besides the articles QUOTATIONS OF THE OLD TESTAMENT IN THE TALMUD and SEE MASORAH in this Cyclopoedia, together with the literature given in those articles, Strack, Peroleuomena Critica in V. T. (Lipsiae, 1873); id. Zur

Textlritili des Jesaias, in Lutchrische Zeitschrift (Leipsic, 1877), p. 17 sq., and his preface to the edition of the Proaphetarnum Codex Buabylonicus Petropolitanus (Petrop. 1876); Meir-a-Levi Abulafia (q.v.), ספר מסורת סייג לתורה (Florence, 1750; Berlin, 1761), Lonzano, אור תורה (Venice, 1618; Berlin, 1745); Norzi (q.v.), מנחת שי (Vienna, 1813); also in the Warsaw Rabbinic Bible; Heidenheim, מאור עינים הומש (Rodelheim. 1818-21); Kimchi, Liber Radicum edd. Lebrecht et Biesenthal (Berlin, 1847); Frensdorff, Die Massora Miagna (Hanover and Leipsic, 1876); Geiger, Urschrift und Uebersetzumngen der Bibel (Breslau, 1857), p. 231 sq.; the critical notes appended by Baer and Delitzsch to the different books edited by them; the Masechet Soferim (q.v.), best ed. by J. Muller (Leipsic, 1878); the forthcoming work of Ginsburg on the Masorah, which will be published in 4 vols. - viz. vol. i, the Masorah Magna, lexically arranged; vol. ii, the Masorah Parva; vol. 3, an English translation, with explanatory notes; vol. 4, the original Hebrew text of the Bible according to the Masorah; and Delitzsch, Complutensische Varianten zu den Alttestamnentlichen Texte (ibid. 1878). (B. P.)

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