Raynaud, (Rainaldi), Theophilus
Raynaud, (Rainaldi), Theophilus a celebrated Italian Jesuit, was born Nov. 15, 1583, at Sospello, near Nice. He studied at Avignon, and became quite accomplished as a student of philosophy. In 1602 he entered the Society of Jesus, and was made one of their teachers at Lyons. At first he taught elementary branches, but soon found advancement. and was finally given a professorship of philosophy and theology. In 1631 he was chosen confessor to prince Maurice of Savoy, and repaired to Paris. Here he wsas made uncomfortable by unpleasant relations to Richelieu, who, having been attacked by a Spanish theologian for the alliance of the French government with the German Protestants, had asked Raynaud for a reply and been refused. Raynaud was, at his request to the order, transferred to Chambery, and this bishopric soon becoming vacant, he was solicited to fill it. But he was far from being pleased, and even prepared to return to Lyons. He did not again revisit Savoy until 1639, and then only to his unhappiness. He had, during his sojourn at Chambery, contracted a close friendship with father Pierre Monod, his companion; and when he heard of his detention in the fortress of Montmelian, he tried in every way to have it brought to an end. Richelieu took offence at this ardent affection, which was natural between friends, and, not being willing to permit relations between Raynaud and a prisoner of the state, he solicited and obtained from the court of Savoy the arrest of the unfortunate Jesuit. At the end of three months he was released, and songht refuge at Carpentras, which then belonged to the Papal States. But the aversion of his enemies would not leave him long undisturbed. By order of the cardinal-legate Antonio Barberini, he was conducted to Avignon, and locked in a chamber of the pontifical palace. With difficulty released, he left for Rome, with the manuscript of Heteroclita Spiritualia, of which the impression had been sutspended, submitted it for examination to father Alegambe, and obtained the authority to publish. In 1645 he returned to Rome in company with cardidal Federigo Sforza, and was presented to the pope and the Sacred College as one of the most ardent champions of the papal rights. He afterwards made two journeys to the Eternal City, the first time in 1647, and there occupied for some time a theological chair; the second time in 1651, when he assisted at the general assembly of his order. He afterwards obtained permission to establish himself at Lyons, and there passed the rest of his life in teaching and composing his works. He died Oct. 31, 1663. Father Raynaud had all the qualities of a good friar: he was sober, pious, and very charitable; but by his pen he did not spare his adversaries, and showed himself severe and irascible. He wrote a great many works, which, though extravagant in style, tedious, and trivial, were nearly all received with favor. Tiraboschi was unable to forbear comparing them "to one of those vast magazines full of merchandise of all kinds, good and bad, ancient and modern, useful and useless, in which every one could find, with taste and patience, everything which suited him." The writings of pere Raynaud worth mentioning here are, Theologia Naturalis (Lyons, 1622, 1637, 4to): — Splendor Veritatis Moralis (ibid. 1627, 8vo; under the name of Stephanus Emonecus): — Moralis Disciplina (ibid. 1629, fol.): — Indiculus Sanctorunt Lugdunensium (ibid. 1629, 12mo): Culcinismus, Vestiareum Religio (Paris, 1630, 12mo; under the name of Riviere): — De Communione pro Alortuzis (Lyons, 1630, 8vo); he pretends that the sacraments have no virtue except for those who receive them uncensured by the Church of Rome: — De Martyrio per Postem (ibid. 1630, 8vo); in the index of this book he tried to show that those who exposed themselves voluntarily to the plague in assisting those who had it were the real martyrs: — 'Nova Libertatis Explicatio (Paris, 1632, 4to); against father Gibieuf, an Orator: — Metamorphosis Latronis in Apostolum Apostolique in Latronen, (Lyons, 1634, 2 vols. 8vo); followed by several other treatises: — De Ortu Infantiun contra Naturam, per Sectionem Caesaream (ibid. 1637, 8vo); a singular and curious bohok: — Hipiparchus de Religioso Neyotiattore (Francopolis [Chambery], 1642, 8vo); a satirical work, translated into French (Chambery, 1645, 8vo) by Tripier, teacher of the natural children of the duke of Savoy; and Amsterdam (1761, 12mo): — Dypticha Mariana (Grenoble, 1643, 4to): — Malal Bonorum Ecclesiasticorum (Lyons, 1644, 4to): — De Incorruptione Cadaverum (Avignon, 1645, Svo); a dissertation written upon the dead body of a woman which was found in 1642 at Carpentras wvithout any signs of decomposition, although it had been buried for a long time; Raynaund pretended that the incorruption of the body was not due to natural causes, nor to the artifices of the devil, but to God himself; but, adds he, as this last supposition is far from being demonstrateid, it will be well to find what God himself has decreed on this subject: — Heteroclita Spiritualia (Grenoble, 1646, 8vo; Lyons, 1654, 4to); a collection of the extraordinary practices which superstition and ignorance have introduced into religion: — Vitae ac Mortis Humanae Terminalia (Orange, 1646, 8vo); he had not then reason to doubt, following the author, that God has fixed the term of life for the good and the wicked; but ordinarily the length of the life of men and their death depend upon natural causes: — Trinitas Patrilarcharum (Lyons, 1647, 8vo); notices upon Simeon Stylites, Francis de Paulo, and Ignatius de Loyola: — Erotemata de Malis ac Bonis Libris, ceque Justa natt justa eornmodem Confixione (ibid. 1650, 4to); this work, fulll of research, is an answer to an attack on his De Martyrio per Pestem: - Theologia Patrum (Antwerp, 1652, fol.): — De Sobria Alterius Sexuts Frenuentatione per Sacros et Religiosos Homines (Lyons, 1653, 8vo): — Scapulare il Marianum (Paris, 1653, 8vo): — De Pileo Exteriusque Ceapitis Tegminiibus, tam Sacris quam Profanis (Lyons, 1655, 4to): — Eunuchi, Nati, Facti, AIystici, ex Sacra et Humlana Literatura Illustrati; Puerorum Enmasculatores ob Musicam quo Loco Habendi (Dijon, 1655, 4to); under the name of Jean Heribert. he treated in a very diffuse manner, the subject of eunuchs; but he had forgotten the most essential point, whether they were able to marry; this question was very fully treated in his work Traite des Eunuques (1707,4to): — Hercules Commodiclus (Aix, 1565, 8vo); under the name Honorat Leotard; it is a virulent satire against Jean de Launoi: — Trias Fortium David (Lyons, 1657, 4to); remarks upon Robert d'Arbrissel, St. Bernard, and Cesar of Bus: — Missi Evangelici cad Siwas. Japionam et Oras Confines (Antw. [Lyons] 1659, 8vo); under the name of Leger Quintin: — 0 Parascevasticum (Lyons, 1661, 4tc): — Iagiologiun Luydunennse (ibid. 1662, 8vo): — De Immunnitate Autorum Cyriacorum a Censura (ibid. 1662, 8vo). See Dupin, Biblioth. des Auteurs Ecclus.; Niceron, Memoires, vol. 26. His Life, written by himself, is preserved in the Jesuit Library at Lyons. See also Sotwei, Script. Soc. Jesu. — Hoefer, Nouv. Biog. Generale, s.v.