Rattles (Fr. crecelle, tarturelle, rattelle; Lat. crotalum). Prior to the introduction of bells (q.v.), rattles of wood or of iron were struck or shaken by the hand to summon the people to worship. The Celtic cloc, which preceded the use of bells. was a board with knockers. The Greeks used the ἁγιοσίδηρον (sacred iron), a mallet and plate of iron, and the ἄγια ξύλα (sacred wood), two clappers, as a summons to prayer. The latter are mentioned by John Climacus as used for rapping at the cell-doors in the monasteries of Palesline, in the 6tli century, as a night signal and wakinghammer. At University and New colleges, Oxford, fellows are summoned to a meeting in common room by the blow of a hammer at the stair-foot. By the rule of Pachomius a trumpet was used. At Burgos the clappers are called matraca; in Italy, serandola; and in some parts of France, symandites, which sound for service between tlhe Mass ol Maundy-Thursday and the Gloria in Excelsis, sung on Easter eve in the Mass after Nones, when the bells are disused, in memory of the Lord's silence in the tomb, and the speechless timidity of the apostles — a custom dating from the 8th century. At Caen the ceremonial gives the signal for censing with tablets. Neogorgus says boys carried rattles in the procession of Good-Friday.