Raphall, Morris Jacob

Raphall, Morris Jacob a Jewish rabbi, was born at Stockholm, Sweden, in September, 1798. He was educated at the Jewish college of Copenhagen, and was so precocious that in his thirteenth year he received the Hebrew degree of Chabir Socius (analogous to the "fellowship" of the English universities), which entitled him to the honorable designation of Rabbi. In 1812 he went to England, where he remained for six years, devoting himself to the study of the English language. The next six years he spent in travelling and studying in Europe. On his return to England in 1825 he married, and took up his residence in London. In 1832 he gave some lectures on the Biblical poetry of the Hebrews, and in 1834 commenced the publication of the Hebrew Review, the first Jewish publication ever issued in England. When this had reached its seventy-eighth number, ill-health compelled him to relinquish it. In 1840 he acted as secretary of Dr. Solomon Helschel, the chief rabbi of London, and in 1841 he was appointed rabbi preacher of the synagogue at Birmingham, England. He was also the chief instrument in founding the first national school in England for the Jews, of which he acted as head master. In 1849, having previously received the degree of Ph.D. from the University of Giessen, he was called to New York as rabbi preacher to the Anglo-German congregation B'nai Jeshurun, where he died, June 23, 1868. His main work is his Post-Biblical History of the Jews (N. Y. 1866, 2 vols.), and the translation of Eighteen Treatises of the Mishna, in connection with D. A. de Sola (2d ed. Lond. 1845). Besides, he translated into English from the works of Maimonides, Albo, and Wessely, which translations are found in the Hebrew Review. (B. P.)

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