Quotations of the Old Testament in the Talmud

Quotations Of The Old Testament In The Talmud.

In order to understand many quotations which are cited in the Talmud from the Scriptures, we must remember that the ancient rabbins, in their colloquies and disputations, did not use a MS., but cited from memory — a mode of citation often found in the New Test. Dr. M. Steinschneider, in his essay Jewish Literature, in Ersch and Gruber's Allgem. Encycl. § 2, vol. 27:p. 375, makes the following statement: "The influence of the Bible on gnomonics in particular is shown in the following steps —

(1.) Biblical precepts were used unchanged in meaning and expression, as sentiments or favorite sayings of particular persons. *

(2.) Biblical sentences, unchanged in form, were made by extending or contracting their contents into new expressions of various truths, uhich had elsewhere been clothed in known proverbs, so that these last were in some sense deduced from the Bible. A wide field was thus opened for the Midrash; and, finally, the words of the Bible were made into proverbs with an entirely different sense. †

(3.) Lastly, Biblical phrases and ideas were used more or less intentionally in newly formed sententiae,‡ and passed into proverbial forms, as they are to be found in the old Halachah (e.g. Peah, ii, 2).

* To illustrate Steinschneider's statement, we give the following example. In the Talmud (Nidda, fol. 51, col. 2) it was said in the school of R. Ishmnael, "He will magnify the law and make it honorable" (Isa 42:25).

† In the Talmud (Sabbath, fol. 10, col. 1) the question was raised, how long the judges were oblinged to sit at court. R. Sheshel answerled, "Until mid-day." To which R. Chama said, "Where do you find this in the Scriptire?" The answer was, "It is said, 'Woe to thee, O land, when thy king is a child, and thy princes eat in the morning' (Ec 10:16)." R. Jeremiah once engaged himself with R. Sera in the law. When the time for the evening prayer had already advanced, R. Jeremiah betook himself quickly to read it. To this R. Sera applied the passage (Pr 28:9), "He that turneth away his ear from hearing the law, even his prayer shall be abomination" (Sabbath, fol. 19, col. 1). Of R. Tarphon it is said that when some one told him something intellectual, he used to say כפתור ופרח, "A knop and a flower in one branch" (Ex 25:33); but when the tale was not according to his taste, he used the words (Ge 42:38), "My son shall not go down with you" (Bereshith Rabba, ch. 91).

‡ E.g. כבר שתה עליכוס תנחגומין, i.e. "He already drank for thee the cup of consolation" (Bereshith Rabba, fol. 20, etc.); i.e. to be comforted over something. The phrase "cup of consolation" is found in Jer 16:7.

1. As the ancient rabbins made the Bible their study for years, we must not wonder when, in their colloquies, they were able to quote a correct Biblical text. And yet we must bear three things in mind, in order not to have a misconception of the matter. To make this intelligible, we will quote the following examples:

(a.) The Talmudists sometimes erroneously attribute a Biblical verse to another context. Thus we read in the Talmud (Pesachim, fol. 109, col. 1), "It is every man's duty to rejoice with his household on the feast, for itis written, 'And thou shalt rejoice in thy feast,'בחִגֶּךָ ושָׂמִחתּ (De 16:14, where reference is made to the Feast of Tabernacles). The Tosaphoth on this passage, however, reads, "And thou shalt rejoice, thou and thine household" (ושָׂמִחתָ אִתָּה וּבֵיתֶךָ). Now the original reading was that as in the Tosaphoth, which is found in De 14:26, where the second tithe is spoken of. The rabbins, however, thought that the reading alluded to in the Tosaphoth is found in the section which treats of the Feast of Tabernacles; hence, when the editors of the Talmud found out the mistake, they substituted for the reading ושמחת אתה ובית that of בחגושמחת(b.) Sometimes sentences are quoted in the Talmud as Biblical which are not found in the Bible. In Berakoth, fol. 61, col. 1, in fine, we read: Rab Nachman said Manioah was an ignorant manl (עִם הארוֹ), for it is written, "He went after his wife" (Jg 13:11). B. Nachman, the son of Isaac, asked, should this not also apply to Elkanah, for it is written, "And Elkanah went after his wife;" and to Elisha, of whom the Scripture says, "And he arose and followed her" (2Ki 4:30)? He followed her, indeed! Yes, but he followed her words and advice, and so here likewise he (Manoah) went after her words and counsel. The Tosaphoth correctly remarks on what the Talmud says concerning Elkanah: שבוש הוא שאין פסוק זה בכל המקרא; i.e. "It is an error, for this verse is not found in the whole Scripture."

Ibid. fol. 55, col. 2, in fine, we read: "It is said in the name of R. Banah, once I had a dream, and I vwent to all [interpreters of dreams — the passage having reference to the twenty-four interpreters of dreams said to have been at Jerusalem], and the interpretation of the one was different from that of the other, but all were fulfilled, to fulfil what is said: All dreams go after the interpretation. But is this a verse of the Scripture? Yes, and according to R. Eliezer, who said, Whence do we know that all dreams go after the interpretation? For it is said, 'And it came to pass as he interpreted' (Ge 41:13)." In the Talmud (Pesachim, fol. 56, col. 1) it is said that Jacob, before his death, cited the words כבוד מלכותו לעולם ועד ברושם; i.e. "blessed be the glorious name of his kingdom for ever and ever." But such a quotation is nowhere found in the Scriptures.

In Yoma, fol. 85, col. 2, and Berakoth, fol. 62, col. 2, we read that the Scripture says, "If any one wants to kill you, kill him first" (בא להרגהשכם להרגו), but such a passage is nowhere found. Oftentimes quotations are made from Ecclesiasticus, and are introduced by the phrases generally applied to scriptural passages, as in Niddah, fol. 16, col. 2 (לדכתיב); Berakoth, fol. 48, col. 1 (דכתיב); Erubin, fol. 65, col. 1 (שנאמר); Baba Kama, fol. 92, col. 2 (שנאמר בנביאים, Jg 11:3; דבר זה כתיב בתורה, Ge 28:9; בכתובימ ומשולש, Ecclesiasticus 13:20). As these passages are al. ready enumerated in this Cycloopedia, we can only refer to the art. ECCLESIASTICUS SEE ECCLESIASTICUS.

(c.) Biblical phrases are here and there changed for the sake of brevity. In Erubin, fol. 31, col. 2 (Berakoth, fol. 27, col. 2; Kiddushin, fol. 54, col. 1), those things are mentioned which may be used for the Erub (i.e. the ceremony of extending the Sabbath boundary). But to prove those things which may not be used, the phrase is ונתן הכסŠ וקם לו. But these four words are nowhere found in this connection together.

Sometimes some verses are contracted into one, as De 11:5-6, in Rosh ha-Shana, fol. 4, Col 2; Pr 19:17,14,29, in Berackoth, fol. 18, Col 1; Eze 15:4, and Jer 36:22, in Sabbath, fol. 20, Col 1; Le 14:39,44, in Maccoth, fol. 13, Col 2; Le 19:13; Le 5:19; ibid. fol. 16, col. 1. The same is often the case in the New Test., e.g. Mt 21:5, where Isa 42:2 and Zec 9:9 are connected; Isa 6:9-10 in Mr 1:11; Isa 40:6-7; Isa 52:10, in Lu 3:4-6; Ex 16:14-15; Nu 11:7; Ps 78:24 in Joh 6:31,49, etc.

2. Having thus shown the mode of quotations, we will now give a list of passages which are read otherwise in the Talmud than in our Bible:

A. Passages quoted in the Mishna.

1. Le 25:36, אלאּתקח מאתו; Baba Metsia, ch. v, § 11, ממנו.

2. Nu 28:2, ואמרת אלהם; Taanith, ch. 4:§ 2, אליהם3. Numbers 32:22, והייתם נקים; Shekalim, ch. iii, § 2, נקיים[thus likewise in two MSS.].

4. De 24:19, לאאּתשוב; Peah, ch.vi, § 4, בלאּתשוכ[three times].

5. Jos 8:33, the words וכלאּישראל to לארון are quoted Sotah, ch. 7:§ 5, but instead of ושוטרים the reading is ושוטריו [probably on account of the antecedent וזקניו and following ושופטיו; the reading in the Mishna is also marked by Michaelis, Bibl. Hebr. 1720, ad loc., and so likewise in the Syriac, Chaldee, and Arabic versions].

6. Isa 10:13, שושתי; Yadaim, ch. 4:§ 4, שוסתי [in the Bible (with the exception of our passage) שסה is always read with the Samnech].

7. Eze 46:21, ארבעת מקצועי; Middoth, ch. ii, § 5, ארבע מקצעות [probably on account of the following מקצעת in v, 22; ארבע is the reading also of one MSS.].

8. Am 9:14, ושבתי את שבות עמי ישראל; Yadain, ch. 4:§ 4, reads after ישראל ויהודה.

9. Mal 3:16, ספר; Aboth, ch. iii, § 3, בספר [which is supported by seven MSS. and the Syr.].

10. Mal 3:18, הנה אנכי שלח לכם אליה הנביא; Eduyoth, ch. 8:§7, הנני שלח לכם את אליהו הנביא.

11. Ps 68:27, אלהים אדני; Berakoth, ch. 7:§ 3, יהוה אלהים יהוה is the reading of eleven MSS.].

12. Job 1:1, אלהים והיה האיש ההוא תם וישר וירא; Sotah, ch. v, § 5, אישתם וישר ירא אלהים.

13. Pr 22:28, עוים; Peah, ch. v, § 6, עולים [but ch. 7:§ 3, the reading is, as in the Bible, עולם].

14. 2Ch 28:15, הלבישי; Sotah, ch. 8:§ 1, הלבישיםB. Passages quoted in the Gemara.

15. Ge 7:8, אֵינֶנָּה טחֹרָה; Pesachim, fol. 3, col. 1, איננה טהורה16. Ge 7:23, מֵאָדָם עִדאּבּהֵמָה; Berakoth, fol. 61, col. 1, ועד17. Ge 15:2, in Berakoth, fol. 7, col. 2, we read: "R. Jochanan said, in the name of R. Sineon beni-Yochai, from the day wlien God created the world, no one called him Lord (אדון) until Abraham came and called him Lord, f)r it is written (Ge 15:8), 'And he said, Lord God (יהֵוהֹ אֲדֹנָי), whereby shall I know that 1 shall inherit it?'" [But in 15:2, we already read ויאמר אברם אדני יהוה.]

18. Ge 25:6, ולבני הפילגשים אשר לאברהם; in the Bereshith Rabba, sect. 61, fol. 67, col. 4 (where the question is whether Abraham had one or more concubines), it is stated that the reading is פילגשם [one concubine. This reading of the Midrash is followed by Rashi, who, in his commentary on Ge 25:6, remarks, "The textual reading is פילגשם, defective, because Abraham had only one concubine, namely, Hagar, who was identical with Keturah." But this reading is contrary to the Masorah, which distinctly remarks that the word פילגשים occurs twice entirely plene, that is, with the two Yods after the two Chireks. The one instance is in Ge 26:6, and the other in Es 2:14].

19. Ge 35:18, בנימין plene; in Sotah, fol. 36, col. 2, where the passage in Ge 49:27, בנימין זאב יטרŠ , is treated, we read that, with the exception of 49:27, the word בנימין is written בנימן, defective. [From this statement, it seems that at that time Ge 35:18; Ge 42:4; Ge 43:14,16,29; Ge 45:12 was written בנימן.]

20. Ex 12:3, עֲדִת יַשֹרָאֵל; in Pesachim, fol. 6, col. 2, עדת בני ישראל [so Samuel, Sept., Syr., Vulg., Targumn; comp. our Horce Samaritance on Exodus, in Bibliotheca Sacra, July, 1876, loc. cit.; in the Talmud editions of Prague, Vienna, and Warsaw, the word בני is omitted].

21. Ex 12:6, לִחֹדֶשׁ הִזֶּה; Erakin, fol. 13, col. 2, לחדש הראשון 22. Ex 13:16, טוֹטָפֹת; De 6:8, טֹטָפֹת; 11:18, טֹוטָפֹת; iln Menachothl fol. 34, col. 2, we read, "The sages propound, Rabbi Ishmael said in לָטוטפת לטטפֹת לטטפת, the four compartments [in the phylactery] are indicated." [To understand this, we will remark that the word טטפת occurs only three times, as indicated above; in two instances it has no ו (De 6:8; De 11:18), and in the third (Ex 13:16) there is a ו after the first ט, i.e. טוטפת; hence R. Ishmael regards it as a dual, and makes of the three words four, to obtain the four compartments in the phylacteries. But Chayim, in his Introduction to the Rabbinic Bible, tells us that "in the correct codices, as well as in the Book of Crowns,* the reading is לטטפת (De 6:8; De 11:18) and ולטוטפת (Ex 13:16), but there is no ו between the פ and the ת; yet I myself have seen that in the ancient Book of the Crowns, even לטוטפת in De 11:18 is written with a, ו after the first ט" The latter statement proves that our present reading is correct.]

*The Book of Crowns (ספר תגין) is an ancient treatise, containing Masoretical rules on the ornamental letters. It has lately been published, for the first time, by Burges (Paris, 1866).

23. Ex 31:1, וִידִבֵּר; in Berakoth, fol. 55, col. 1, ויאמר24. Le 4:25,30,34, קִרנֹת, defective; in Sanhedrin, fol. 4, col. 1, we read that the school of Shammai read קרנות קרנות קרנות, while that of Hillel, קרנות קרנת קרנת [i.e. once plene written; the same is also said in Zebachim, fol. 37, col. 2; comp. also the note in Michaelis, Biblia Hebr. ad loc.].

25. Le 10:12, וִידִבֵּר; Berakoth, fol. 61, col. 1, ויאמר26. Le 15:10, והִנּוֹשֵׂא; Nidda, fol. 33, col. 1, כתיב והנשא27. Le 18:18, ואַשָּׁה אֶלאּאֲחֹתָה לאֹ תַקָּח; Kiddushin, fol. 50, col. 2, תקח דאמר קרא אשה אל אחותה לא.

28. Nu 5:19, אַם לאֹ שָׁכִב; Gittin, fol. 60, Yoma, fol. 37, col. 2, אם שכב אם לא שכב.

29. Nu 18:16, וּפדוּיָו מַבֶּןאּחֹדֶשׁ תַפדֶּה; in the Talmud seems once to have stood ומעלה after חדש, at least this is intimated in the Tosaphoth, or additional commentary to the Talmud; Erakin, fol. 18, col. 2, where it is stated וחפשנו אחר מקרא הזך ולא מצאנוהו, i.e. "We sought for this reading, but could not find it."

30. De 6:7, וּבשָׁכבּךָ; Berakoth, fol. 2, col.!בשכב, [thus likewise the Samar. and Vulg.].

31. De 6:9, מזֻזוֹת; Menachoth, fol. 34, col. 1, R. Meir seems to have read מזוזת.

32. De 6:20, מָה to אתכם; Jerusalem Talmud, Pesachim, ch. 10:§ 4, אותנו.

33. De 23:1, כּנִŠ אָבַיו; Berakoth, fol. 21, col. 2, את כנŠ34. De 25:7, לאֹ אָבָה יִבמַי; Yebamoth, fol. 106, col. 2, R. Ashai found R. Kahana, who, being perplexed about it, read ולא אבה יבמי (with ו conjunctive). In correct codices, as is also evident from the Masorah, it is read לא אבה [some Hebr. MSS., 1 Samuel, the Syr., Ar., and Vulg. have ולא].

35. Jos 3:17 is quoted in Berakoth, fol. 54, col. 1, but instead of הארון ברית יההוה it reads ארון יהוה, and עד אשר תמו כל הגוי ר the reading is כל הים עד תום36. Jos 10:11, מַפנֵי יַשׂרָאֵל; Berakoth, fol. 54, col. 2, מפני בני ישראל:'

37. Jos 14:7,10. These two verses for the sake of brevity are thus contracted (see No. 1, c, above), Erakin, fol. 13, col. 1, ד קאמר כלב בן ארבעים שנה (?)הארוֹ ועתה אנכי היום בן חמש ושמונים בשלח אותי משה עבד עבד ה מקדש ברנע לרגל את מנלן, i.e. "It is said of Caleb, forty years old was I when Moses the servant of the Lord sent me from Kadesh-barnea to espy ont the land, and now I am this day fourscore and five years old."

38. Jos 16:6, תִּאִנִת שַׁלה; Zebachim, fol. 118, col. 2, Rabbi Abdini bar-Chasa said, the Scripture says, תאנת שילה ולו, to which the commentary remarks, חיפשתיו ולא מצאתיו במקרא, i.e. "I have sought but not found it in the Scripture, but I found in Joshua 16:, אבל מצאתיו תאנת שילה,

39. Jg 15:20; Jg 16:31, where Samson is said to have judged Israel twenty years (Jg 16:31). The Talm. Hieros. Sotah, fol. 17, "One passage reads, and he judged Israel forty years, and another that he judged Israel twenty years. R. Acha answered, From this we see that the Philistines feared him twenty years after his death, just as they did twenty years before it." [On this passage R. Chayim, in his preface to the Rabbinic Bible, makes the following interpretation: "To me it appears, however, that there is no difficulty in it; for what the Talmud speaks about Samson refers to the Midrashic interpretation, viz. 'Why is the verse, that he judged Israel twenty years, repeated twice? R. Acha answered, From this we see that the Philistines feared him (viz. Samson) twenty years after his death, just as they did twenty years before it, and this makes forty years.' Hence the Talmnd does not say, Why is it written in the text, The judged Israel forty years?' but simply, The judged forty years,' that is, according to the Midrash. And now everything comes out right when thou lookest into it." We may well subscribe what Claudius Capellanus, in his Mare Rabbinicum Infidum, 1p. 350, note, says, "Tam insigne mendacinum quod decepit doctissimum Buxtorfium facile corruet vel sola adductiole loci Talmudici." This much is certain, that in the time of the Talmud, one codex at least had the reading, Judges 15:ארבעים שנה ]

40. 1Sa 2:24, מִעֲבַרַים; in Sabbath, fol. 55, col. 2, "is not the reading מִעֲבַרַים? Whereupon R. Hunnah ben R. Joshua said the reading is מעברם [Rashi remarks that the reading of the most trustworthy codices is מעברים: plene, i.e. with a Yod after the Resh.]

41. 2Sa 3:35, להברות; Sanhedrin, fol. 20, col. 1, it is written להכרות, but is read להברות [a number of MSS. read להכרות; comp. also the Diets. of Kimchi, Lib. Rad. s.v. כרה, and Menachen ben-Sarug, Lex. Rad. בר and כר (ed. Filipowski, Lond. 1854, p. 48, 109)].

42. 2Sa 24:15, ועִדאּעֵת מוֹעֵד וִיַּתֵּן יהוהֹ דֶבֶר בּיַשׂרָאֵל מֵהִבֹּקֶר; Yoena, fol. 2, col. 2 , מן הבקר ועד עת מועד ויתן ה דבר בעם43. 2Ki 17:31, נַבחִז; Sanhedrin, fol. 63, col. 2, נבחן [D. Kimchi also asserts to have seen the Nun (") final, instead of the ן majuscular, as written now].

44. 2Ki 23:17; in Erakin, fol. 33, col. 1, the whole verse is quoted with the exception of האלה אשר עשתה.

45. Isa 38:16, והֲחֲיֵינַי; 4eerakoth, fol. 55, col. 1, ותחייני46. Isa 42:5, ונוֹטֵיהֶם; Bereshith Rabba, sect. 12, fol. 15, 3, ונווטיהם [i.e. leaders].

47. Isa 58:7, לאֹ תַתעִלָּם; Jerusalem Talmud, Kethuboth, ch. 11:§ 3, אל תתעלם.

48. Eze 40:48; Eze 47:1; Erubin, fol. 2, col. 1, פתח אולם הבית דכאיב אל; but such a passage is not to be found in the Scriptures. [Tosaphoth remarks on this passage, "Such a passage is nowhere to be found, but we find written (40:48) אוּלָם הִבִּיַת and פֶתִח הִבִּיַת (47:1)."]

49. Eze 44:9, is quoted Moed Katon, fol. 5, col. 1, but with the addition לשרתני after מקדשי.

50. Ho 4:11, ותַרוֹשׁ pleine; Yoma, fol. 76, col. 2, it is written תירש and read תירוש.

51. Am 4:6, וגִם אֲנַי נָתִתַּי; lidda, fol. 65, col. 1, גם אנכי נתתי52. Am 8:11, אֵת דַּברֵי יהוהֹ; Sabbath, fol. 138, col. 2, דברי את דבר יהוה is found in the ed. princeps, but later editions, Kimchi, Aben-Ezra, Sept., Syriac,Vulg., Targum, read דבר].

53. Am 9:11, . ושִׁבתַּי אֶת שׁבוּת; Berakoth, fol. 28, col. 1 (ed. princeps), הנני משיב את שבית [Later ed. reads as in our text of the Bible.]

54. Mic 4:2, גּוֹיַם; Berakoth, fol. 55, col. 2, עִמים. 55. Zec 12:10, אלי; Sukka, fol. 52, col. 1, אליו [forty codices have אליו , and so many Jewish commentators].

56. Mal 1:2, מֵאָהָלֵי יִעֲקֹב; many editions of the Talnud have מאלקי for מאהלי, but this is of no importance, since the ed. princeps, Sanhedron, fol. 82, col. 1, only quotes the first part of the verse till ער ועונה.

57. Ps 5:5, רָע כַּי לאֹ אֵלאּחָפֵוֹ רֶשִׁע אִתָּה לאֹ יגֻרךָ; Chagiga, fol. 12, col. 2, יָגוּר בַּמגּוּרךָ רָע לאֹ אֵלאּחָפֵוֹ רֶשִׁע אִתָּה לא But this does not stand in the Bible as Tosaphoth already remarked, אין זה מקרֹא .

58. Ps 16:10, חֲסַידיךָ; Erubin, fol. 19, col. 1; Yomna, fol. 87, col. 1 (in five eds. of the Talmud) read!חסיד [so likewise Sept., Syriac, Vulg. Jerome].

59. Ps 56:11, דָּבָר בֵּאלֹהַים אֲהִלֵּל דָּבָר בִּיהוהֹ אֲהִלֵּל; Berakoth, fol. 60, col. 1, באלהים בוהוה אהלל דבר60. Ps 68:21, לִמָּוֶת תּוֹצָאוֹת; Berakoth, fol. S, col. 1, ולמות61. Ps 95:5, ויִבֶּשֶׁת יָדָיו יָצָרוּ; Kethuboth, fol. 5, col. 1, ידו כתיב והכתיב יצרו '.

62. Ps 97:7, תַשׁתִּחֲווּ; Jerusalem Talmud, Edulyoth, fol. 44, col. 1, ישתחוו [comp. Epistle to the Hebrews, 1:6, προσκυνησάτωσαν, κ. τ. λ.].

63. Ps 127:5, אֶתאּאִשׁפָּתו; Kiddushin, fol. 30, col. 2, without את.

64. Ps 139:5, כִּפֶּכָה; Chagiga, fol. 12, col. 1,!כפ.

65. Pr 8:13, שׂנאֹת רָע; Pesachim, fol. 113, col. 2, שונאי רע66. Pr 11:17, איש חָסֵד; Taanlith, fol. 11, col. 2, חסיד איש67. Pr 15:1, יָשַׁיב; Berakoth, fol. 17, col. 2, משיב.

68. Job 2:8, להַתגָּשׁד; Midrash Bereshith Iabba, sect. 64 (towards the end), להתגיר .

69. Job 13:4, אֵַּלל; Chullin., fol. 121, col. 1, אֵַליל.

70. Job 14:6, כַּיאּעִתָּה; Jerusalem Talmud, Berakoth, ch. v, § 1, כי אתה .

71. Job 36:5, הֶןאּאֵל כִּבַּיר ולאֹ יַמאָס; Bel rakoth, fol. 8, col. 2, הן אל כביר לא ימאס תם, without the Vav before לא [It may be that the Talmud confoun ds this passage with Job 8:20, הֵןאּאֵל לאֹ יַמאִסאּתָּם.]

72. Job 36:11, יכִלּוּ; Sanhedrin, fol. 108, col. 1, יבלו.

73. Ru 3:15, הָבַי; Midrash Ruth, ad loc. כתיב הבה.

74. Ec 9:14, מצוֹדַים גּדוֹלַים; Nedarim, fol. 32, col. 2, מצודים וחרמים .

75. Ec 9:15, חכם; Vedarimn, fol. 32, col. 2, וחכם.

76. Ec 10:5, שֶׁיֹּצָא; Kethtuboth, f(l. 62, col. 2; Moed Katon, fol. 18, col. 1; Baba Mezia, fol. 68, col. 1, שיוצא.

77. Da 2:29, Berakoth, fol. 55, col. 2, where for סלקו רעיוניאנתה is written!אנת סליקו רעיונ.

78. Da 4:14, וּמֵאמִר קִדַּישַׁין; Pesachim, fol. 33, col. 1; Sanhedrin, fol. 38, col. 2, ובמאמר קדישין [some codices have also ובמאמר].

79. Da 6:18, והֵיתָיַת; Nidda, fol. 69, col. 2, והיתאית80. Da 10:13, אִהִד הִשָּׂרַים Berakoth, fol. 4, col. 2, אחד מן השרים.

81. Ezr 4:3, לַבנוֹת בִּיַת לֵאלֹהֵינוּ; Erakin, fol. 5, col. 2, לבנות את בית אלהינו.

82. Ne 4:16, הִלִּילָה מַשׁמָר והִיּוֹם מלָאכָה; Mregil הלילה למשמר והיום למלאכה but in Berakoth, fol. 2, col. 2, מלאכה and משמר are extant.

83. Ne 8:8, בִּסֵּפֶר בּתוֹרִת הָאֶלֹהַים; Nedarim, fo]. 37, col. 2, תורת בספר תורת האלהים, so likewise the Sept., Vulg., Syr.].

84. Ne 8:8, האלהים , ibid. אלהים; but in Megillah, fol. 3, col. 1, האלהים .

85. Ne 8:15, לִעֲשׂת; Sukka, fol. 37, col. 1, וִעֲשׂוּ)'.

86. Ne 8:17, וִיִּעֲשּׁוּ כָלאּהִקָּהָל; Erakin, fol. 32, col. 2, ויעשו בני הגולח; for יֵשׁוּע read יהושע, ibid.

87. 1Ch 3:17, וּבנֵי יַכָניָה אִסַּר שׁאִלתַּיאֵל בּנוֹ,; Sanhedrin, fol. 37, col. 2, בנו בני יכניה אסיר בנו שלתיאל88. 1Ch 4:10, והָיתָה יָדךָ עַמַי ועָשַׂיתָ מֵרָעָה: Temutrah, fol. 16, col. 1, ידעמדי ועשה מרעתי.

89. 1Ch 5:24, ועֵפֶר ויַשׁעַי; Baba Bathra, fol. 123, col. 2, חפר וישעי ' .

90. 1Ch 16:5, . מִשׁמַיע; Erakin, fol. 13, col. 2, להשמיע.

91. 1Ch 17:9, לבִלֹּתוֹ; Berakoth, fol. 7, col. 2, לכלותו92. 1Ch 26:8, כָּלאּאֵלֶּה מַבּנֵי עֹבֵר אֶדוֹם; ibid. fol. 64, col. 1, כל אלה עובד אדום. '

93. 1Ch 26:24, בֶּןאּמשֶׁה.; Babd Bathra, fol. 110, col. 1, בן מנשה.

94. 1Ch 27:34, יהוֹיָדָע בֶּןאּבּנָיָהוּ; Berakoth, fol. 3, col. 2, בניהו בן יהוידע95. 2Ch 31:13, וִיֵעָתֶראּלוֹ; Sanhedrin, fol. 103, col. l, מאי דכתיב וישמע אליו ויחתר לו.

96. In fine, we will quote the following interesting passage. In the Jerusalem Talmud, Taanith, fol. 68, col. 1, we read the following: "Three codices [of the Pentatemuch] Were found in the court of the Temple, one of which had the reading מעוֹו., the other זִעֲטוּטֵי, and the third differed in the number of passages whereiin היא is read with a Yod; thus in the one codex it was written מעוֹן, dwelliing [De 33:27], while the other two codices had מעוֹנָה; the reading of the two was therefore declared valid, whereas that of the one was invalid. In the second codex, again, זִעֲטוּטֵי. was found [in Ex 24:11], while the other two codices had אֶתאּנִעִרֵי; the reading in which the two codices agreed was declared valid, and that of the one invalid. In the third codex, again, there were only nine passages which had היא written with a Yod [as it is generally written הוא, with a Vav], whereas the other two had eleven passagces; the readilgs of the two were declared valid, and those of the one invalid."

3. The different passages which we have presented here, and which might be yet increased to a great extent, do not justify us in presuming that the readings found in the Talmud were those of the Old-Testament codices of that time, and much less in the presumption that the readings of the Talmud are to be preferred to those of our text, for the following reasons: 1. We have not as yet a critical edition of the Talmud; 2. The formulas '!אל תקרא כאלא כ, i.e. "read not so, but so," and יש אם למקרא ויש אם למסורת, i.e. "there is a solid root for the reading of the text, and there is a solid root for the traditional pronunciation," already indicate that these variations arose partly for the sake of allegory, partly for exegetical purposes. Thus Richard Simon, Disquisit. Crit. de Variis Bibl. Edit. cap. 3, p. 17, remarks on the formula!אל תקרא כאלא כ, Cavendum est, ne ista loquendi formula quam frequenter in Talmude usurpant ne legas sic sedsic ad lectionum varietatem trahatur. Lusus enim est allegoricus illis doctoribus admodum familiaris qui servata dictionum ut ita loquar substantia diversos unius ejusdemque vocis legendae modos pueriliter comminiscuntur." To illustrate this, the following may suffice. Isa 54:13, we read, "thy son," בָּנִיַך, but in Berakoth, fol. 64, we read, "Do not read בָּנִיַך 'thy sons, but בֹּנִיַך 'thy builders, thy wise, whereby it should be proved that 'the wise build the peace in the world.'" Sanhedrin, fol. 37, col. 1, the word בּגָדָיו, "his raiment," in Ge 27:27, is read בֹּגדָיו, "his perfidious," to prove thereby the perfidy of Jose ben-Joeser's nephew. (For more such examples the reader is referred to G. Surenhusius Βίβλος καταλλαγῆς, p; 59 sq. [Amst. 1713].) As to the second formula, יש אם כו Buxtorf (De Punct. Antiq. p. 96, 103-110) makes the following correct remark: "Usus vero hujus axiomatis Talmudici hic est. Cum de re seu quaestione aliqua disputant ac in diversas sententias abeunt, saepe accidit ut uterque dissentientium fundamentum suum in uno eodemque Scripturse loco, imo et in eadem voce ponat: unus sc. in communi et recepta lectione, alter in lectione mystica et allegorica, eadem illa voce sed allis vocalibus animata vel aliter explicata. Prior dicit: est mater lectionis, q. d.: mea sententia innititur communi et receptae lectioni, cum punctis et vocalibus propriis, sensui literali. Alter dicit: est zmater lectionis, h. e. ego meam sententiam elicio et educo ex sensu mystico et lectione vel expositione aliqua per traditionem accepta, qua didici, hanc vocem pro infinita fecunditate legis sic quoque posse legi et explicari." 'To illustrate this, the following may suffice: In Ex 12:46 we read concerning the Passover, "In one house shall it be eaten," יֵאָכֵל. But in the Talmud, Pesachim, fol. 86, col. 2, two inferences are deduced from this passage. R. Jehudah maintains that the man who partakes of the Passover, he must eat it (יֹאכִל) in one place (בבית אחד), but that the Passover itself may be divided, and a part of it may be eaten by another company in another place; basing his argument upon the מסורות, viz.: יֹאכִל he must eat it at one place. Whereas R. Simeon maintains that the Passover itself must be eaten (יֵאָכֵל) in one place (בבית אחד), and cannot be divided between two different companies in different places, though the man himself, after having eaten his Passover at home, may go to another place and partake of another company's Passover; basing his argument upon the מקרא viz. יֵאָכֵל, it must be eaten in one place. To the same category belongs the rule that שבעים (Le 12:5) is to be read שׁבֻעִיַם two weeks, and not שַׁבעַים seventy days; and that בחלב (Le 23:19) is to be pronounced בִּחֲלֵב in the milk, and not בּחֵלֶב, in the fat.

4. Literature. — Compare Pesaro, Aaron di, ביתאהרן אהרן תולדות (Frankf. ad Viadr. fol.), which also gives all the passages found in the Midrashim and Sohar; Surenhusius Βίβλος καταλλαγῆς (Amsterd. 1713); Weisse, in Bechinath ha-Olsam (ed. Stern, Vienna, 1847), praef. p. xix adn.; Fromman, Oputscula Philologica, i, 146; Schorr, in He-chaluz (Lemberg), i, 97-116; ii, 56; Geiger, in Judische Zeitschrift, iv (1866), p. 43, 99 sq., 165-171; S. Rosenfeld, ספר חקת התורה (Vilnae, 1866); Buxtorf filius, Anti-critica, pt. ii, cap. 21:p. 808; Strack, Prolegomena Critica (Lips. 1873), p. 59 sq. (B. P.)

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