Prophets, Major and Minor
Prophets, Major And Minor.
We have in the Old Testament the writings of sixteen prophets; that is, of four greater and twelve lesser prophets. The four greater prophets are Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel, and Daniel. The Jews do not properly place Daniel among the prophets, because (they say) he lived in the splendor of temporal dignities, and led a kind of life different from other prophets. The twelve lesser prophets are Hosea, Joel, Amos, Obadiah, Jonah, Micah, Nahum, Habakkuk, Zephaniah, Haggai, Zechariah, and Malachi. The collectors of the canon arranged the prophets chronologically, but considered the whole of the twelve lesser prophets as one work, which they placed after Jeremiah and Ezekiel, inasmuch as the last three lesser prophets lived later than they. Daniel, as above observed, was placed in the Hagiographa, because be had not filled the prophetic office. The collection of the lesser prophets themselves was again intended to be chronologically disposed; still Hosea is on account of the extent of his work, allowed precedence before those lesser prophets who, generally, were his contemporaries, and also before those who flourished at a somewhat earlier period. It is the opinion of Hengstenberg (Christology, 4:235) and of Pusey (Minor Prophets, pt. 1, introd.) that the writings of the Minor Prophets are actually placed chronologically. Accordingly, the former arranges the list of the prophets as followers: Hosea, Joel, Amos, Obadiah, Jonah, Micah, Isaiah ("the principal prophetical figure in the first or Assyrian period of canonical prophetism"), Nahum, Habakkuk, Zephaniah, Jeremiah ("the principal prophetical figure in the second or Babylonian period of canonical prophetism"), Ezekiel, Daniel, Haggai, Zechariah, Malachi. Calmet (Dict. Bibl. s.v. "Prophet") as follows: Hosea, Amos, Isaiah, Jonah, Micah, Nahum, Jeremiah, Zephaniah, Joel, Daniel, Ezekiel, Habakkuk, Obadiah, Haggai, Zechariah, Malachi. Stanley (Lect. 19) in the following order: Joel. Jonah, Hosea, Amos, Isaiah, Micah, Nahum, Zechariah, Zephaniah, Habakkuk, Obadiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel, Isaiah, Daniel, Haggai, Zechariah, Malachi. Hence it appears that Stanley recognises two Isaiahs and two Zechariahs, unless "the author of Isaiah 40- 66 is regarded as the older Isaiah transported into a style and position later than his own time" (p. 423). Obadiah is generally considered to have lived at a later date than is compatible with a chronological arrangement of the canon, in consequence of his reference to the capture of Jerusalem. But such an inference is not necessary, for the prophet might have thrown himself in imagination forward to the date of his prophecy (Hengstenberg), or the words which, as translated by the A.V., are a remonstrance as to the past, may be really but an imperative as to the future (Pusey). For the various questions relating to each person and book, see the several names in their alphabetical places. SEE BIBLE.
Commentaries — The following are the special exegetical helps on the prophets in general: Jerome, Commetarii (in Opp. vol. 5, ed. Basil.); Abrabanel, פֵּרוּשׁ (written in 1497, and frequently printed and translated in various forms and portions); Kimchi, David (first printed in the Rabbinical Bible, Yen. 1548, fol.); (Ecolampadius, Commentarii (Basil. 1558, 2 vols. fol.); Peyron, Commentaire (Par. 1673, 12mo); Lowth, Commentary
(Lond. 1714, 4 vols. 4to; embraced in the commentary of Patrick, Lowth, etc.); Van Til, Conmmentaria (L. B. 1744, 3 vols. 4to); Vogel, Unmschreibung (Halle, 1771-73, 4 vols. 8vo); Weitenauer, Metaphrasis (Aug. Vind. 1768, 8vo); Dathe, Notee [on Maj. Proph. only] (Halle, 1779, 1785, 8vo); Smith (J.), Explanation [chiefly compiled] (Edinb. 1787, 1840, 12mo); Vaupel, Erklaiung (Dresd. 1798-80, 2 vols. 8vo); Eichhlorn, Erklarung (Gotting. 1816-19, 3 vols. 8vo); Agier, Des Explications (Par. 1820-22, 10 vols. 8vo); Cole, Commentary [includ. N.T.] (Lond. 1826, 2 vols. 8vo); Hengstenberg, Christologie (Berlin, 1829-35, 1854-57, 3 vols. 8vo; transl. N. Y. 1853-59, Edinb. 1854-58, 3 vols. 8vo; abridgm. Lond. 1847, 8vo); tiickert, Erliiut. [on certain parts] (Leips. 1831, 8vo); Tegg's ed. Notes [chiefly compiled] (Lond. 1836, 5 vols. 8vo); Hoffmann, Auslegung [on the Maj. Proph., compiled] (Stuttg. 1839, 8vo); Stephenson, Christology (Lond. 1839, 2 vols. 8vo); Ewald, Erklrlung (Stuttg. 1840-42, Gbtting. 1867-69, 2 vols. 8vo); Maurer, Commentarius (Lips. 1841, 8vo); Herxheimer, פֵּרוּשׁ [includ. the Hagiog.] (Berl. 1841-44, in parts, 8vo); Delitzsch and Caspari, Exeg. Hundb. (Leips. 1842, 8vo); Umbreit, Commentar (Hamb. 184246, 5 vols. 8vo); Noyes, Translation (Bost. 1843, N. Y. 1849, 3 vols. 12mo); Hitzig, Uebersetz. (Leips. 1854, 8vo); Smith (G. V.), Prophecies relating, to Assyria (Lond. 1857, 12mo); Williams, Prophets during the Assyrian Empire (ibid. 1866, 8vo). SEE OLD TESTAMENT.
The following are exclusively on the Minor Prophets: Cyril of Alexandria, Commentarii (in Opp. 3, 1870; also Ingolst. 1607, fol.); Theodoret, Interpretatio (in Opp. II, ii); Theodore of Mopsuestia, Commentarii (in Mai's Nov. Collectio, 1, i, 41-104); Remigius Antissiod. Einarmrationes (in Bibl. Max. Patr. vol. 16); Rupertus Tuitiensis, Commentarii (in Opp. i, 651); Albertus Magnus, Conmmentarii (Basil. 1525, fol.); Tarnon, Commentarius (Rost. 1522, 4to; Lips. 1688, 1706, 4to); Lambert, Commentarii (Argent. 1525-26, 5 vols. 8vo; Francf. 1589, 1605, 3 vols. 8vo); Calvin, Praelectiones (Genev. 1559,1581, 1612, fol.; in Opp. vol. ix; in French, ibid. 1560, etc., 4to; transl. by Owen, Edinb. 1846-49, 5 vols. 8vo); Forer, Commentarii (Ven. 1565, 8vo); Wigand, Explicatio (Francf. 1566, 8vo); Hemming, Explanationes (Lips. 1568, 4to); Strigel, Scholia (ibid. 1561, 1570, 1571, 8vo); Montanus [Rom. Cath.], Commentarius (Antw. 1571, fol., 1582, 4to); De Ribera [Rom. Cath.], Commentarii (ibid. 1511 and often, fol.); Gualter, Commentarii ('igur. 1572, fol.); P. de Palacio [Rom. Cath.], Commenturius (Colon. 1583, 1588, 8vo); Danaeus,
Commentaria (Genev. 1586, 1594, 8vo; transl. by Stockwood, Lond. 1594, 4to); Livelie, Annotutiones [on a part only] (Lond. 1587, 8vo; also in the Critici Sacri, vol. iv); Heilbrunn, Loci communes (Lauing. 1588, 8vo); M. de Palacio [Rom. Cath.], Explanationes (Salam. 1593, fol.); Alscheich, מִראוֹת, etc. (Venice, 1595 and later, fol.); A Messana [Rom. Cath.], Pararphrasis (Antw. 1597. 4to); Winckelmann, Commentarius (Francof. 1603.1620, 2 vols. 8vo); Thuan and Rittenhaus, Metaphrasis (Amberg. 1604, 8vo); Maldonatus, Commentarius (Colon. 1611, fol.); A Castro [Rom. Cath.], Comnentarii (Lugd. 1615, Magunt. 1617, fol.); A Figeiro [Rom. Cath.], Commentarii (in his Opp. Lugd. 1615, fol.); Wolder, Disputationes (Wittemb. 1617, 4to); Sanctius [Rom. Cath.], Commentarius (Ligd. 1621, fol.); A Lapide, Commentarius (Antw. 1625, fol.); Drusius, Commentarius (Amst. 1627, 4to; also in the Critici Sacri); Philippaeus [Rom. Cath.], Commentarii (Par. 1633, 4 vols. fol.); Fabricins, Conciones (Bern. 1641, fol.); Lightfoot, Versiones (in Works, 10:453); Colona [Rom. Cath.], Commentarii (Panorm. 1644, fol.); Macorps [Rom. Cath.], Pararphrase (Par. 1644, 1645, 2 vols. 12mo); Cocceius, Commentarius (L. B. 1652. fol.); Hutcheson, Exposition (Lond. 1655, 3 vols. 8vo; 1657, fol.); Stokes, Explication (ibid. 1659, 8vo); Kunad, Commentarius (Dresd. 1677, 4to); De Veil, Explicatio (Lond. 1680, 8vo); Schmid and Baldwin, Commentarius (Lips. 1685, 1698, 4to); Pocock, Commentaries [on a part] (Oxf. 1685, fol.; also in Works); Mercer, Commentarius [on the first five only] (Giess. 1695, 4to); Marck, Commentarius (Amst. 1696-1701, 5 vols. 4to; Tubing. 1734, 2 vols. fol.); Tauler, Predigten (Ulm, 1699, 4to); Lyser, Prcelectiones (Goslar, 1709, 4to); Perterslen, Er/kla'iung (F. ad NI. 1723, 4to); Gebhard, Erklarung (at various places, 1723-28, 10 pts. 4to; Brunsw. 1737, 4to); Almosino, פֵּרוּשַׁים, (in Frankfurter's Rabbin. Bible, Amst. 1724-27, fol.); Patronus [Rom. Cath.], Commentarii (Neap. 1743, fol.); Burke, Gnomon (Heidelb. 1753, 4to); Atschul, מצוּחִת, etc. [includ. the Hagiogr.] (Leghorn, 1753 and later, 8vo); Vogel, Umschreib. (Hal. 1773, 8vo); Struensee, Uebersetz. (Halberst. 1777, 8vo); Walther, Uebersetz. (Steud. 1777, 8vo); Vollborth, Annmerk. (Getting. 1783, 8vo): Newcome, Notes (Lond. 1785, 4to; 1836, 8vo); Bauer, Erklar. (Leips. 1786, 8vo); Staudling, Eu laut. [on parts] (Stutttg. 1786, 8vo); Heusler, Animadversions [on passages] (Kilon. 1786, 4to); Moldenhauer. Erklr. [includ. Dan.] (Quedl. 1787, 4to); Vampel, Erkl'. (Dresd. 1793, 8vo); Dahl, Observations [on passages] (Neostr. 1793, 8vo); Wolf (of Dessau), מַנחָה, etc. (Dessau, 1805, 8vo, and later);
Vater, Observationes [on passages] (Hal. 1815, 4to); Schrider, Erlaut. (Leips. 1823, 8vo); Rosenmuiller, Scholia (Lips. 1827, 4 vols. 8vo); Ackerman, Annotationes (Viennase 1830, 8vo); Zadel, Annotationes (Hal. 1830, 8vo) Scholz, Erkla'r. (F. ad M. 1833, 8vo); Pick, Translation (2d ed. Lond. 1835, 12mo); Jeitteles, פֵּרוּשׁ (Vienna, 1835, 8vo); Rieger, Betrchtuungen (Stuttg. 1835, 8vo), Hesselberg, Auslegung (Konigsb. 1838, 8vo); Henderson, Commentary (Lond. 1845, Andover, 1866, 8vo); Hitzig, Erklar. (Leips. 1852, 8vo); Schregg [Rom Cath.], Erklar. (Regensb. 1854, 8vo); Pusey, Commentary (Lond. 1860, 4to); Kohler, Die nachexil. Projheten (Erlang. 1861, 8vo); Schlier, Predigten (Stuttg. 1861, 8vo); Whish, Paraphrase (Lond. 1864,12mo); Shrewsbury, Notes (Edinb. 1865, 8vo); Cowles, Notes (N. Y. 1867, 12mo); Keif and Delitzsch, Commentar (Leips. 1866, 8vo; transl. Edinb. 1868, 2 vols. 8vo); Kelly, Lectures (Lond. 1871. 8vo). SEE COMMENTARY.