Prince is the rendering of several Heb. and Gr. words in the A. V. Sar, שִׂר (from שָׂרִר, to rule, to have dominion; Sept. ἄρχων; Vulg. princts), the chief of
any class, the master of a company, a prince or noble; used of Pharaoh's chief butler and baker (Ge 40:2 sq.); of the taskmasters set over the Israelites in Egypt (Ex 1:11); even of chief herdsmen (Ge 47:6). It is frequently used for military commanders (Ex 18:21 ["rulers"]; 2Ki 1:9 ["captain"]; Isa 3:3, etc.), and or princes both supreme and subordinate (1Sa 29:3; Job 29:1,9; Isa 49; Isa 7; Jer 51:59, etc.). In Da 8:11 God is called שִׂר הִצָּבָ‹ (Sar hatstaba), Prince of the host; and in ver. 25 the title שָׁרִים שָׂר (Sar sarim), Prince of princes, is applied to the Messiah. The "princes of the provinces" (הִמּדִינוֹת שָׁרֵו, sarey ham-medinoth, 1Ki 20:14) were probably the district magistrates who had taken refire in Samaria during the invasion of Benhadad, and their "young men" were their attendants, παιδάρια, pedisseqiui (Thenius, Ewall. Gesch. 3, 495). Josephus savs, υἱοὶ τῶν ἡγεμόνων (Ant. 8:14, 2). There is a peculiar sense in which the term "prince" is used by the prophet Daniel: thus, "Prince of the kingdom of Persia" (Da 10:13), "Michael your prince" (ver. 21). In these passages the term probably means a tutelary angel; and the doctrine of tutelary angels of different countries seems to be countenanced by several passages of Scripture (Zec 3:1; Zec 6:5; Jude 1:9; Re 12:7). Michael and Gabriel were probably the tutelary angels of the Jews. These names do not occur in any books of the Old Test. that were written before the captivity; and it is suggested by some that they were borrowed from the Chaldaeans, with whom and the Persians the doctrine of the general administration and superintendence of angels over empires and provinces was commonly received. SEE ANGEL.
2. Nagid, נָגִיד: (from, נָגִד to be in front, to precede; Sept. ἄρχων or ἡγούμενος; Vulg. dux), one who has the precedence, a leader, or chief, used of persons set over any undertaking, superintending any trust, or invested with supreme power (1Ki 14:7; Ps 76:12; 1Ch 26:24 ["ruler"]; 1Sa 9:16 ["captain"], etc.). In Da 9:25 it is applied to the Messiah; and in 11:22 to Ptolemy Philometor, king of Egypt.
3. Nadib, נָדִיב (from נָדִב , which in Hithp. signifies to volunteer, to offer voluntarily or spontaneously; chiefly in poetry; Sept. ἄρχων; Vulg. princeps), generous, noble-minded, noble by birth (1Sa 2:8; Ps 47:9; Ps 107:40; Ps 113:8; Ps 118:9; Pr 27:7, etc.). This word is the converse of the preceding; נָגִיד means primarily a chief, and derivatively what is morally noble, excellent (8, 6); נדיב means primarily what is morally noble, and derivatively one who is noble by birth or position.
4. Nasi, נָשִׂיץ (from נָשָׂץ, to lift up, Niph. to be elevated; Sept. ἄρχων, ἡγούμενος, ἡγεμών, βασιλεύς Vulg. princeps, dux), one exalted; used as a general term for princes, including kings (1Ki 11:24; Eze 12:10, etc.), heads of tribes or families (Nu 1:44; Nu 3:24 [A. V. "chief"]; 7:10; 34:18; Ge 17:20; 1Ch 7:40, etc.). In the A.V. it is often rendered "ruler" or "captain." In Ge 23:6 Abraham is addressed by the sons of Heth as נָשִׂיץ אֵֹלהִים (nasi Elohim), a prince of God, i.e. constituted, and consequently protected, by God [A.V. "mighty prince"]. This word appears on the coins of Judas Maccableus (Gesenius, Thesaur. p. 917).
5. Nasik, נָסִיך (from נָסִך, to pour out, anoint; Sept. ἄρχων; Vulg.princeps; Ps 83:11; Eze 32:30; Da 11:5; "duke," Jos 13:8; "principal," Mic 5:5).
6. Katsin, קָצִין (from קָצָה, to cut, to decide; Sept. ἀρχηγός, ἄρχων; Vulg. princeps; Pr 25:15; Da 11:18; Mic 3:1,9; elsewhere "captain," "guide," "ruler").
7. Rab, רִב (usually an adj. great; Sept. ἄρχων, ἡγεμών; Vulg. optimus); only occasional; but used in compounds, e.g. Rab-mag, Rab-saris (q.v.). So its Chald. reduplicature Rabreban, רִברבָן, in the plur. (Da 5:2-3; elsewhere "lords").
8. Rozen, רֹזֵן (participle of רָזִן, to rule; Sept. (σατράπης, δυνάστης; Vulg. princeps, legum conditor), a poetical word (Jg 5:3; Pr 8:15; Pr 31:4; Isa 40:23; Hab 1:10 "ruller," Ps 2:2).
9. Shalish, שָׁלִישׁ (apparently from שָלוֹשׁ, three; only Eze 23:13; elsewhere "captain" [q.v.]).
10. Achashdarpenaya (Chald. plur. אֲחִשׁדִּרפּנִיָּ‹, Da 3:2,27; Da 6:1-7; Sept.; ὕρατοι), a Persian word. Those mentioned in Da 6:1 (see Es 1; Es 1) were the predecessors, either in fact or in place, of the satraps of Darius Hystaspis (Herod. 3, 89). SEE SATRAP.
11. Chashmannim, חִשׁמִנִּים (plur. literally rich, only in Ps 68:13).
12. Segen, סֶגֶן (a Persian word, used only in the plur. Isa 11:16; elsewhere "rulers").
13. Partemim, only in the plur. פִּרתּמִים (another Persian word, Da 1:3; elsewhere "rulers").
14. ῎Αρχων, which in the Sept. appears as the rendering of all the Hebrew words above cited, in the New Test. is used of earthly princes (Mt 20:25; 1Co 2:6), of Jesus Christ (Re 1:5), and of Satan (Mt 9:34; Mt 12:24; Mark 3, 22; Joh 12:31; Joh 14:30; Joh 16:11; Eph 2:2). On the phrase "prince of the power of the air" in this last passage, see AIR.
15. Α᾿ρχηγός, which in Theodotion is the rendering of נָשִׂיא (Nu 13:3; Nu 16:2); and in the Sept. is the rendering of שִׂר (Jg 5; Jg 15; Ne 2; Ne 9; Isa 30:4), in the New Test. is applied only to our Lord (Ac 3:15; Ac 5:31; Heb 2:10 [A. V. "captain"]; Heb 12:2 [A. V. "author"]).