Press (פּוּרָה, purâh; ληνός). Among the Israelites this was a large trough, usually hewn out of stone (Isa 5:2; Mt 21:33; comp. Nonni, Dionys. 12:330) or dug in the earth and walled up (Harmer, 3, 117). It had a trellised opening below. This trough was called gath, גִּת (in the Talmud also גתה), or purâh, פּוּרָה (Isa 63:3); and in it the grapes were trodden by men (five usually work together in Persia still; Kämpfer, Aemen. p. 377). Hence the phrase to tread the wine-press (Job 24:11; La 1:15; Isa 63:2). The juice (Heb. tirôsh, תִּירשׁ) flowed through the opening into a vat, usually in the earth (called yekeb, יֶקֶב Gr. προλήνιον , Isa 5:2, or ὑπολήνιον, Isa 16:10; Mr 12:and simply ληνός, Mt 21:33; Lat. lacus vinarius, Colum. 12:18: in Job 24:11, this word means, however, the trough or press itself). From this it is taken for fermentation in earthen vessels. These presses, which are still common in the East and the Levant (Arvieux 4:272 sq.; Kämpfer, ut sup.), were almost always outside of the towns, either in the vineyards or on mountains (Zec 14:10; Isa 5:2; Mt 21:33; Mr 12:1; Re 14:20). The slaves must usually have trodden the press, as it was hard labor (Isa 63:1 sq.). They were cheered in it by singing and music (see Isa 16:10; Jer 25:30; Jg 9:27; Jer 25:30; Jer 48; Jer 33). See Ugolino, De Re Rust. Vet. Heb 6:14 sq., in his Thesaur. 29. SEE OIL; SEE WINE.