Pomerius, Julianus

Pomerius, Julianus a noted Spanish prelate, flourished in the latter part of the 7th century as archbishop of Toledo, about A.D. 680-690, while Spain was still under the dominion of the Goths, before the Saracen invasion. That he was of Jewish extraction may be seen from what Mariana (6, 18) says of him: "Brat Julianus eruditionis laude ea aetate celebris, lut ejus libri testantur. Fuit ex Judaeorum sanguine prognatus, Eugenii tertii discipulus, Quirini Toletani Praesulis successor, ingenis facili, copioso, suavi, probitatis opinione singulari." Great praise is awarded to him by the historians of that period, especially for his writings and labors as a bishop. He took part in the great monothelite disputes of his time concerning the twofold will of Christ-a question on which this bishop, or rather the Council of Toledo, at which he presided, declared quite independently of the bishop of Rome: "Nebis (Julian disputatio) aliquanto liberior visa est, quam tit Juliani modestiam erga Romanum pontificem summe Ecclesiae rectorem, deceret." Without going any further into details concerning this theological dispute, we shall only speak of' Pomerius's writings concerning Jews and Judaism. At the instigation of king Ervigius, he wrote a work, which he dedicated to the king, entitled De Sexta Etatis comprobatione adversus Judecos, reprinted in the Bibl. Maxim. Patrum, vol. 12. His aim was to demonstrate that the Messiah must have already come, although the Jews claimed that the Messiah was to come 6000 years after the creation of the world; on the other hand, he wished to strengthen the Christians in their faith, for said he in his modesty, "Ut si non corrigatur Jumldeus, saltem proficiat Christianus." Besides this work, he left as the fruit of his labors, Responsionum liber in Defensionem Canounum et Legum, quibus prohibentur Christiana mancipia infidelibus deserire: — Prognosficorum fJtturi sceculi (Leips. 1535) lib. 3: — Historia Wanbe Regis Toletani de

expeditione et victoria, qua rebellanten contra se Galliae Provincinam celebri triuanpho pedomauit: — De Anima (which reminds us of a work by Nemesius): — le Contenptu mundii ac rerum transiturarum De Vitiis et Virtutibus: — De Virginibs instituend, etc. See Sacsoruma Concilio Lutum noca et aniplissima collecio, ed. Mansi (Ven. et Flor. 1759), 12:9; Andr. Duchesne, Rerun Gallicarutin et Francicarum Scriptores (Par. 1739), 2, 707 sq.; Antonii Bibl. Hist. Vetus, 2, 303; Ferrara, Hist. of Spain (Germ. transl.), 2, 453, etc.; Gritz, Gesch. d. Juden. 5, 140-146; the same, Die westgothische Gesetzgebung in Betreff d. Juden (Bresl. 1858), p. 14 sq,; Herzog, Real-Encyklop. 12:51; Jocher, Allqemeines Gelehrten-Lex. s.v.; Da Costa, Israel (and the Gentiles, p. 309 sq.; Basnage, Hist. des Juifs (Engl. transl. by Taylor), p. 582; Kalkar, Israel und die Kirche, p. 19 sq.; Fürst,. Bibl. Jud. 3, 111; Pick, in the Evangelical Review, July, 1876, p. 359; Gennadius, De Viris illustribus, c. 98; Fabricius, Bibl. mzecl. et ilfiun. Latinit. v. Julianus Pomerius; Tillemont, Me1lmuoirees, 16, 29 sq. (B. P.)

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