Plant Under this general term we classify and explain the several plants mentioned in Scripture, as edible, flowering, or medicinal, in order.
I. Edible Plants. — Among these, with which we number also aromas and spices, may be noticed:
1. Anise, Gr. ἄνηθον, which means rather dill; an aromatic herb mentioned by Christ (Mt 23:23). SEE ANISE.
2. Barley, the frequent rendering of the Hebrew seorah', שׂעֹרָה, and of the Greek κριθή, as in Re 6:6; Joh 6:9,13. SEE BARLEY.
3. Bean, Heb. po, פּוֹל, as in 2Sa 17:28; Eze 4:9. SEE BEAN.
4. Caper-berry, Heb. abiyonah', אֲבַיּוֹנָה, desire (Ec 12:5). SEE CAPER-PLANT.
5. Cinnamon is the rendering of the Hebrew kinnamon', קַנָּמוֹן (Ex 30:23), and of the Greek κινάμωμον (Re 18:13). SEE CINNAMON.
6. Coriander represents the Hebrew gad, גִּד, in most ancient versions, as the Sept. and Vulg., in Ex 16:31; Nu 11:7; but the Chaldee and Samaritan vary. SEE CORIANDER.
8. Cummin stands for the Hebrew kammon, כִּמּן (Isa 28:25,27); and in the New Test. for the Greek κύμινον, which is simply an adoption of the Hebrew. SEE CUMMIN.
9. Doves' dung our version gives for charey yonim, חֲרֵי יוֹנַים, which is probably some kind of vegetable food, perhaps kali, though the rendering given is the literal translation (2Ki 6:25). SEE DOVES DUNG.
10. Fitches is given by the A. V. in Isa 28:25,27 for the Hebrew ketsach, קֶצִח, which, according to the Sept., Vulg., and rabbins, is a kind of fennel flower, as black cummin. In Eze 4:9 the word kusse'meth, כֻּסֶמֶת, is rendered fitchles, but it seems to mean properly snelt. SEE FITCHES; SEE RYE.
11. Garlic is the Hebrew שׁוּם, shuim (Nu 11:5). SEE GARLIC.
13. Grape is the rendering of several Hebrew words; some of them distinguishing particular kinds or qualities:
(a) beiishtm. בּאֻשַׁים (Isa 5:2,4), wild grapes, i.e. bad grapes. Aquila has σαπρίαι, Symm. ἀτελῆ.
(b) Bo'ser, בֹּסֶר (Isa 18:5; Jer 31:24,30; Eze 18:2), sour or unripe grapes; Sept. ὄμφαξ.
(c) Chartsdn, חִרצִן, sour grapes, kernels (Nu 6:4), and of the Greek σταφυλή, bunch of grapes (Mt 7:16; Lu 6:44; Re 14:18). SEE GRAPE.
14. Leek (in Nu 11:5) renders חָצַיר, chatsir', which elsewhere is translated grass, i.e. greens. SEE GRASS; SEE LEEKS.
15. Lentil renders Heb. adash', עָדָשׁ (Ge 25:34; 2Sa 17:28; 2Sa 23:11; Eze 4:9). SEE LENTIL.
16. Mallows is for the Heb. malluach, מִלּוּחִ, properly sea purslain (Job 30:4). SEE MALLOWS.
17. Mandrake is the Heb. dudaim, דּוּדָאַים, love-apples (Ge 30:14: Song 7:13). SEE MANDRAKE.
18. Manna, Heb. man, מָן, a sweet resin distilling from the leaves of tamarisk trees, of several species, especially the tamarix Gallica mannifera, from punctures made by an insect, the coccus manniparus. SEE MANNA.
19. Melon is found in Nu 11:5 as the rendering of the Hebrew abattichim', אֲבִטַּיחַים. SEE MELON.
20. Millet (in Eze 4:9) represents the Hebrew dochan, דֹחָן; it is the holchuis dochna (Linn.). SEE MILLET.
21. Mint (in Mt 23:23; Lu 11:42) is the Greek ἡδύοσμον, i.e. sweet-scented; the mentha virides of Linn. SEE MINT.
22. Mustard (in Mt 13:31; Mt 17:20; Mr 4:31; Lu 13:19; Lu 17:6) is the Greek σίναπι; the sinapis orientalis. SEE MUSTARD.
23. Olive universally is given in the A.V. where the Hebrew za'yith, זִיַת, is used. In 1Ki 6:23 the word olive-tree renders the Heb. ets-shemen, עֵצ שֶמֶן, lit. the tree of fatness. The same expression is rendered oiltree (Isa 4:6) and pine (Ne 8:15). SEE OLIVE.
24. Onion is in Heb. be'tsel, בֶּצֶל, as Nu 11:5. SEE ONION.
25. Parched-corn is the Heb. kali, קִלַי or קָלַיא; it is wheat or barley roasted in the ear and then rubbed out; perhaps occasionally some kind of pulse (1Sa 17:17). SEE PARCHED-CORN.
26. Pistachio-nuts, in Heb. botnim', בָּטנַם (Ge 43:11), a kind of nut of oblong shape, and taking this name from beten, בֶּטֶן, the belly, in allusion to their form. SEE NUTS.
27. Pomegranate renders the Heb. rimmon, רַמּוֹן, in many passages. SEE POMEGRANATE.
28. Purslain is the Heb. challamuth', חִלָּמוּת, according to the Syriac. Our version has egg (Job 6:6), "white of an egg," which is certainly wrong. See Gesen. Thesaur. s.v., and SEE PURSLAIN.
29. Raisins, bunches of (1Sa 25:18; 1Sa 30:12; 2Sa 16:1; 1Ch 12:40), translates the Heb. tsimmtik, צַמּוּק. SEE RAISINS.
30. Rye (in Ex 9:32; Isa 28:25) translates the Heb. kussemeth, כֻּסֶמֶת, which means a smooth grain, spelt. See No. 10, above, and SEE RYE.
31. Vine, Heb. sorek, שׂרֶק, or sorekdh, שׂרֶקָה, is a peculiar kind of grapevine. Thus, choice vine (Ge 49:11); choicest vine (Isa 5:2); noble vine (Jer 2:21. SEE VINE.
32. Wheat in general is the Heb. chittah, חַטָּה, of which the plural in Chaldee is chintim', חַנטַים, as Ezr 6:9; Ezr 7:22; and in the New Test. is σῖτος, a general name for grain, which is also rendered "corn" (Mr 4:28; Ac 7:12).
II. Among flowering plants we notice the following:
1. Lily is the Heb. shushan', שׁוֹשִׁן (1Ki 7:19), and shoshan, שׁוֹשִׁן (Song 2:16; Song 4:5; Song 5:13; Song 6:2-3; Song 7:3; 1Ki 7:22,26). The word means a musical instrument shaped like a lily, as Ps 60:1; Ps 69:1. Also Heb. shoshannah, שׁוֹשִׁנָּה, but only in the first sense, as 2Ch 4:5; Song 2:1-2; Ho 14:6. SEE LILY; SEE MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS.
2. Myrtle (in Ne 8:15; Isa 41:19; Isa 4:6; Zec 1:8,10-11) represents the Heb. hadds, הֲדִס. SEE MYRTLE.
3. Rose, Heb. chabatstseleth, חֲבִצֶּלֶת, is properly the meadow saffron (colchicum autumale, Linn.) (Song 2:1; Isa 35:1). SEE ROSE.
4. Saffron, Heb. karknm, כִּרכֹּם; Sept. κρόκος (Song 4:14), may refer to both kinds of saffron, the common and the Indian. SEE SAFFRON.
5. Sedge, Heb. אָחוּ, csm, rendered meadow in Ge 41:2,18, flag in Job 8:11, is an Egyptian word, applied to all kinds of grassy growth in marshes. SEE REED.
6. Tare is the Greek ζιζάνιον, properly darnel (Mt 13:25 sq.). SEE TARE.
7. Thorn is the translation of many Hebrew words, for the meanings of which SEE THORN.
III. Of medicinal plants we name the following:
1. Balm, "balm of Gilead," Heb. tsori', צַרַי, opobalsamum (Ge 43:11; Ge 37:25; Jer 8:22; Jer 46:11; Jer 51:8; Eze 27:17). SEE BALM.
3. Hyssop, Heb. ezob, אֵזוֹב, and Greek ὕσωπος. SEE HYSSOP.
4. Myrrh, Heb. lot, לֹט, a fragrant resinous gum from the leaves of a shrub, the cistus ladanifera. Sept. and Vulg. stacte, myrrh (Ge 37:25; Ge 43:11). Also Heb. mor, מֹר or מוֹר, a bitter aromatic resin distilling in tears from a tree, the balsamodendron myrrha. SEE MYRRH.