Pistorius (Germ. Becker), a name common to many theologians in the first two centuries of the Reformation of whom we mention the following:
1. CONRAD, a Brunswick theologian. Together with Paul Eitzen, of Hamburg, and Joachim Mirlin, of Brunswick, he took part in the proceedings of the Hardenberg controversy (comp. Herzog, Real- Encyklop. 5, 540 sq.). In 1562 he was superintendent in Güstrow; in 1572 the duke Ulric of Mecklenburg dismissed him from his estates. He then went to Rostock; thence to Antwerp and Vienna; was appointed superintendent at Hildesheim, and, when expelled, returned again to Brunswick, where he died in 1588. See Herzog, Real Encyklop. s.v.; Theologisches Universal-Lexikon, s.v.
2. JOHN (1), at first a Roman Catholic priest of St. John's in Nidda, a Hessian city, afterwards first Lutheran pastor and superintendent there, took part with Melancthon and Bucer as a representative of the Protestants in the colloquy at Ratisbon in 1541, and afterwards at Worms in 1557. In 1544 he was very active in aiding the prince Herman, count of Wied, to introduce the Reformation in the archbishopric of Cologne, but the battle at Muhlberg put an end to the whole movement. Pistorius died in 1583. See Herzog, Real-Encyklop. s.v.; Theolog. Universal-Lexikon, s.v.; Smith, Hist. of the Church of Christ in Chronological Tables, p. 53; Kurtz, Lehrbuch der Kirchengesch. § 135, 3; Niedner, Lehrbuch der christl. Kirchengesch. p. 635.
3. JOHN (2) (also called Niddanus, from his native place), son of the former, was born Feb. 4, 1546. He studied first medicine, law, and history, and finally theology. Originally a Lutheran, he became next a zealous Calvinist, and induced the first son of the margrave Charles II of Baden, Ernest Frederick, to join him. Soon afterwards he joined the Roman Catholic Church, in which alone he could see the continuity of the Church of Christ, and induced the second son of the margrave Jacob to follow him. In behalf of his patron, he held in 1589 a colloquy at Baden with Andreai and Heerbrand, who represented Lutheranism, and Schyrius, who represented Calvinism. A second colloquy he held at Emmendingen in 1590, with Dr. Peppus, of Strasburg. After the death of his patron, Pistorius went to Freiburg and Constance; became doctor of theology, canon of Constance, cathedral-provost of Breslau, and imperial counselor to the emperor Rudolph II. Pistorius died in 1608. In his Theorema de fidei Christianae definita mensura, and in Unser von Gottes Genaden Jakobs Mark. grafen zu Baden… christl. erhebliche und wohlfundirte Motifen, etc., he endeavored to justify his own and his patron's conversion to the Church of Rome. His polemics against Luther in his Anatomia Lutheri, seu de septem spiritibus Lutheri, called forth a number of rejoinders. Pistorius is also the author of some medical works, and some historical works on Poland, Germany, Hungary, and Spain. In the service of the Church of Rome, Pistorius also wrote a Wegweiser für alle verfuhrten Christen, to which Dr. Mentzer replied in his Anti-Pistorius. See Fechti Historia Colloquii Emmendingensis, cui subjicitur protocollum et conclusio (Rostockii, 1709); Herzog, Roal-Encyklop. s.v.; Theolog. Universal- Lexikon, s.v.; Jocher, Gelehrten-Lexikon, s.v. Buchanan, Justification (see Index).
4. THEOPHILUS (1), succeeded the excellent John Mathesius (q.v.) in the ministry at Joachimsthal; and his son,
5. THEOPHILUS (2), a great Oriental scholar, lectured at Leipsic, Tiibingen, Jena, and Copenhagen, and wrote Enthiridion linguae sanctae grammaticam (Leips. 1612), etc. See Herzog. Real-Encyklop. s.v.; Jocher, Gelehrten Lexikon, s.v.; Fiirst, Bibl. Jud. 3. 106; Steinschneider, Bibliog. Handbooch, p. 111, No. 1574. (B. P.)