Pipe, Musical

Pipe, Musical (חָלַיל, chalil). The Hebrew word invariably so rendered (1Sa 10:5; 1Ki 1:40; Isa 5:12; Isa 30:29; Jer 48:36; so also αὐλός, 1Co 14:7) is derived from a root signifying "to bore, perforate," and is represented with sufficient correctness by the English "pipe" (or "flute," as in the margin of 1Ki 1:40). It is one of the simplest, and therefore probably one of the oldest of musical instruments; and in consequence of its simplicity of form there is reason to suppose that the "pipe" of the Hebrews did not differ materially from that of the ancient Egyptians and Greeks. It is associated with the tabret (toph) as an instrument of a peaceful and social character, just as in Shakespeare (Much Ado, 2, 3), "I have known when there was no music with him but the drum and fife, and now had he rather hear the tabor and the pipe" the constant accompaniment of merriment and festivity (Lu 7:32), and especially characteristic of "the piping time of peace." The pipe and tabret were used at the banquets of the Hebrews (Isa 5:12), and their bridal processions (Mishna, Baba metsia, 6, 1), and accompanied the simpler religious services, when the young prophets, returning from the high-place, caught their inspiration from the harmony (1Sa 10:5); or the pilgrims, on their way to the great festivals of their ritual, beguiled the weariness of the march with psalms sung to the simple music of the pipe (Isa 30:29). When Solomon was proclaimed king the whole people went up after him to Gihon, piping with pipes (1Ki 1:40). The sound of the pipe was apparently a soft wailing note, which made it appropriate to be used in mourning and at funerals (Mt 9:23), and in the lament of the prophet over the destruction of Moab (Jer 48:36). The pipe was the type of perforated wind instruments, as the harp was of stringed instruments (1 Macc. 3:45), and was even used in the Temple-choir, as appears from Ps 87:7, where "the players on instruments" are properly "pipers." Twelve days in the year, according to the Mishna (Arach. 2, 3, the pipes sounded before the altar: at the slaying of the First Passover, the slaying of the Second Passover, the first feast-day of the Passover, the first feast-day of the Feast of Weeks. and the eight days of the Feast of Tabernacles. On the last-mentioned occasion the playing on pipes accompanied the drawing of water from the fountain of Siloah (Succah, 4, 1; 5, 1) for five and six days. The pipes which were played before the altar were of reed, and not of copper or bronze, because the former gave a softer sound. Of these there were not less than two nor more than twelve. In later times the office of mourning at funerals became a profession, and the funeral and death-bed were lever without the professional pipers or flute-players (αὐλητάς. Mt 9:23), a custom which still exists (comp. Ovid, Fast. 6, 660, "cantabat moestis tibia funeribus"). It was incumbent on even the poorest Israelite, at the death of his wife, to provide at least two pipers and one woman to make lamentation. SEE MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS.

In the social and festive life of the Egyptians the pipe played as prominent a part as among the Hebrews. 'While dinner was preparing, the party was enlivened by the sound of music; and a band, consisting of the harp, lyre, guitar, tambourine, double and single pipe, flute, and other instruments, played the favorite airs and songs of the country" (Wilkinson, Anc. Egypt. 2, 222). In the different combinations of instruments used in Egyptian bands, we generally find either the double pipe or the flute, and sometimes both; the former being played both by men and women, the latter exclusively by women. The Egyptian single pipe, as described by Wilkinson (Anc. Egypt. 2, 308), was "a straight tube, without any increase at the mouth, and when played was held with both hands. It was of moderate length, apparently not exceeding a foot and a half, and many have been found much smaller; but these may have belonged to the peasants, without meriting a place among the instruments of the Egyptian band… Some have three, others four holes… and some were furnished with a small mouthpiece" of reed or thick straw. This instrument must have been something like the này, or dervish's flute, which is described by Mr. Lane (Mod. Egypt. vol. 2, ch. 5) as "a simple reed, about eighteen inches in length, seven eighths of an inch in diameter at the upper extremity, and three quarters of an inch at the lower. It is pierced with six holes in front, and generally with another hole at the back… In the hands of a good performer the này yields fine, mellow tones; but it requires much practice to sound it well." The double pipe, which is found as frequently in Egyptian paintings as the single one, "consisted of two pipes, perhaps occasionally united together by a common mouthpiece, and played each with the corresponding hand. It was common to the Greeks and other people, and, from the mode of holding it, received the name of right and left pipe, the tibia dextra and sinistra of the Romans; the latter had but few holes, and, emitting a deep sound, served as a bass. The other had more holes, and gave a sharp tone" (Wilkinson, Anc. Egypt. 2, 309, 310). It was played on chiefly by women, who danced as they played, and is imitated by the modern Egyptians in their zummára, or double reed, a rude instrument, used principally by peasants and camel-drivers out of doors (ibid. p. 311. 312). In addition to these is also found in the earliest sculptures a kind of flute, held with both hands, and sometimes so long that the player was obliged to stretch his arms to their full length while playing. Any of the instruments above described would have been called by the Hebrews by the general term châlil, and it is not improbable that they might have derived their knowledge of them from Egypt. The single pipe is said to have been the invention of the Egyptians alone, who attribute it to Osiris (Jul. Poll. Onomnst. 4, 10); and as the material of which it was made was the lotus- wood (Ovid, Fust. 4, 190, "horrendo lotos adunca sono"), there may be some foundation for the conjecture. Other materials mentioned by Julius Pollux are reed, brass, boxwood, and horn. Pliny (16, 66) adds silver and the bones of asses. Bartenora, in his note on Arachin, 2, 3, above quoted, identifies the châlil with the French chalumeau, which is the German schalineie and our shawm or shalm, of which the clarionet is a modern improvement. The shawm, says Mr. Chappell (Pop. Mus. 1, 35, note b), "was played with a reed like the wayte, or hautboy, but being a bass instrument, with about the compass of an octave, had probably more the tone of a bassoon." This can scarcely be correct, or Drayton's expression, "the shrillest shawm" (Polyol. 4:366), would be inappropriate. — Smith, s.v. As among the Greeks, Romans, and the modern Arabs (see Niebuhr, Reis. 1, 180, where cuts are given), so probably among the ancient Jews, there were several kinds of pipe, distinguished chiefly by the number of holes. (See Joseph. War, 3, 9, 5; Pliny, 10:60; Doughtaei Anal. 2, 12; Altmann, in Tempe Helv. 2, 509 sq.) Yet we must not call to mind the completeness of modern pipes and flutes, obtained by keys, etc. See esp. Meursius, De tibiis collect and. in Ugolino, Thesaur. vol. 32; Bartholin, De tibiis vet. Bib. 3 (Amsterd. 1679). SEE FLUTE.

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