Philaret OF Moscow, a modern Russian prelate of much celebrity, was born of pious parentage at Kolouma in 1782. His lay name was Vasili Drosdow. He received his education in the Theological Seminary of Moscow. He commenced his public career as tutor of the Greek and Latin languages. His oratorical gifts being soon observed, he was appointed preacher in 1806 at the Sergian monastery of Troizka, and after having removed to St. Petersburg, entered the monastic life, in order to open to himself the higher avenues of the Church, which only the white clergy can enter. In 1810 he was translated to the Academy of Alexander Newskj as bachelor of theological science; in 1811 he was made archimandrite, and in 1812 became rector of the St. Petersburg Theological Academy. In 1817 he was raised to the bishopric, and was appointed successively bishop of Twer, Iaroslaw, and Moscow. In the episcopal see of Moscow, to which he was appointed in 1821, he remained until his death, November 19, 1867. As the senior Russian prelate, the eminent orator and professor, the theologian justly renowned in the Christian world, the strict supporter of the Church, and the true statesman, Philaret, from his tenderest youth until the last day of his prolonged life, was animated by a burning and constant love for Russia. In the fulfilment of the mission which fell to his lot, he elevated himself by his spirit above the time, and did not allow himself to be captivated by any narrowness of mind. All that knew him know likewise that in the height of his intelligence he considered the relative importance of all the manifestations in the Christian world. whether within or without the orthodox Church. He would not permit the appellation of heretics to such of the Christian dissenters as had come into existence since the oecumenical councils, and consequently had not been condemned by them. He was exempt from fanaticism in his administrations, and yet he knew the limits and measures of that which stood below. His inexhaustible intellect, sound counsels, and thorough acquaintance with the religious and social life of the people made him the friend of the crowned heads of Russia; and he was by them selected as confidential adviser in all important questions ῥconcerning the good of the empire. Alexander I even told him who was to be the successor to his throne before the future emperor knew of it. In the late Crimean war his words and sacrificing example revived a patriotic feeling throughout the land; and to him is ascribed the manifesto which led to the abolishment of the anti-Christian serfdom. For over twenty-five years he was not present at the Holy Synod, yet all important documents concerning spiritual affairs were submitted to him; and his vivid words called out sympathy with the poor co-religionists in the island of Crete. In 1813 Philaret received a decoration from the emperor Alexander I for his oratory. Sermons, lectures, etc., of his have been printed in large numbers and translated into foreign languages. The synodial printing establishment at Moscow alone printed 360 of his compositions to the number of 2,000,223 copies. Metropolitan Philaret was really one of the greatest scholars of his Church. Almost all the now living communicants of the orthodox Russo-Greek Church have learned its doctrines from the Catechism arranged by him. His greatest work is his History of the Russian Church, of which a German translation was brought out in 1872. This history was really the first work of importance in Russian ecclesiastical annals. It was published from 1850 to 1859, and, by order of the Holv Synod, was introduced into the ecclesiastical seminaries (institutions ranking between the ecclesiastical schools and ecclesiastical academies). Within ten vears four editions were published. The author divides the history of the Russian Church into five periods: the first closes with the inroads of the Mongolians in 1237; the second embraces the time of the subjection of Russia by the Mongolians, 1238 to 1409; the third extends to the establishment of a patriarchate, 1587; the foumrth to the abolition of the patriarchate in 1719; the fifth comprises the administration of the Church of the Holy Synod. (The value of the German translation is considerably enhanced by an appendix containing Philaret's treatise on the Liturgy of the Oriental Greek Church and the Catechism of the Orthodox Christian Doctrine.) Philaret published, besides this history of the Russian Church, the following works: A System of Christian Doctrines (2 volumes): — A Work on the Saints of Russia: Cyril and Methodius, the Apostles of the Slavi: The Liturgy of the Russian Church befbre the Invasion of the Mongolians: A Work on the Church Fathers (3 volumes, and an extract from it as a text-book): — A Commentary to the Epistle to the Galatiauns: An Outline of the Theological Literature of Russia (2 volumes): — Sermons, Homilies, and Addresses (4 volumes), of which a detailed account is given by Otto in his Russian Literature. Of his personal appearance and kindness of heart dean Stanley makes mention in his East. Ch. Lectures, page 525. As a preacher, the dean describes Philaret as one of the first of the present Church of Russia, "whose striking manner renders his sermons impressive even to those who cannot follow the language." See Meth. Qu. Rev. July 1873. page 498 sq.; Union Rev. March, 1869; Appleton's Annual Cyclop. 1867, art. Moscow; Theoloyisches Literaturblatt (Bonn, 1873, January and April); Zion's Herald (Boston), April 2, 1868; Otto, Russian Literature, page 324 sq.: Dixon, Free Russia, page 29 sq. (J.H.W.)

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