Petronius the name of two Romans somewhat involved in Jewish history.
1. CAIUS PETRONIUS succeeded Aulius Gallus in the government of Egypt, and carried on a war in B.C. 22 against the Ethiopians, who had invaded Egypt under their queen Candace (q.v.). He was a friend of Herod, and sent corn to Judsea during a famine (Josephus, Ant. 15:9, 2).
2. PUBLIUS PETRONIIS was sent by Caligula to Syria as the successor of Vitellius (A.D. 40), in the capacity of governor, with orders to erect the emperor's statue in the Temple at Jerusalem; but at the intercession of the Jews he was prevailed upon to disobey the imperial command, and escaped punishment by the opportune death of the emperor (Josephus, Ant. 18:9, 2; War, 2:10).