Peter Fullo

Peter Fullo (also called Cnapheus, i.e., the Fuller), a patriarch of Antioch, was born near the commencement of the 5th century. He was abbot of a monastery at or near Constantinople, but various accusations (including heresy) being made against him, he fled to Antioch, accompanying Zeno, son-in-law of the emperor Leo I, who was sent thither. Peter appears to have held the doctrine of the Monophysites, the controversy concerning which was at that time agitating the entire Eastern Church. On his arrival at Antioch, the patriarchate of which city was held by Martyrius, a supporter of the Council of Chalcedon, he determined to attempt the usurpation of that office, engaging Zeno and a number of those who favored the Monophysite doctrine in the enterprise. Great tumult and confusion ensued, one cause of which was that Peter added to the sacred hymn called the Trisagion the words "who wast crucified for us" — which constituted one of the tests of the Monophysites — and anathematized all who did not sanction the alteration. Martyrius, unable to maintain order, went to Constantinople, where he was kindly received by Leo I, through whose influence he hoped to be able, on his return to Antioch, to quell the disturbance. Failing in this, and disgusted with his failure, he abdicated the patriarchate, which was immediately assumed by Peter. Leo, however, at the instigation of Gennadius, patriarch of Constantinople, promptly expelled the intruder, in whose place Julian was elected, with general approval. Peter was banished to Upper Egypt, but, contriving to escape from his exile, he returned to Constantinople and obtained refuge in a monastery, where he remained until the revolt of Basiliscus against Zeno, having bound himself by oath to abstain from exciting further troubles. The revolt succeeding, and Zeno being driven from Constantinople, Basiliscus exerted himself to gain the Monophysites, and issued an encyclical letter to the various prelates of the Church, anathematizing the decrees of the Synod of Chalcedon. Peter gave formal assent to this letter, and was immediately restored to the patriarchate of Antioch (A.D. 476). Julian soon after died of grief, and Peter, resuming authority, restored the obnoxious clause "who wast crucified for us;" and by repeating his anathemas excited fresh tumults, which resulted in plunder and murder. Zeno, however, recovering the imperial power, a synod was assembled and Peter was deposed, chiefly through the agency of one of his own partisans, John Codonatus, whom he had made a bishop. He was banished to Pityus, from whence he escaped, and, going to Euchaita, obtained refuge in the church of St. Theodore. After a period of nine years, during which time numerous changes had been made in the patriarchate, the Monophysites, again in the ascendant, persuaded Zeno to consent to the restoration of Peter upon his signing the emperor's "Henoticon," or decree for the unity of the Church. This event is placed by Theophanes in A.D. 485. The Western Church, which had maintained its allegiance to the Council of Chalcedon, assembled in council at Rome, and hurled its anathemas at Peter, but to no purpose. Protected by Zeno and the strength of his party, he retained the patriarchate during the remainder of his life. Theophanes charges him with various offences against ecclesiastical rule, and with many acts of oppression after his restoration; which charges are, unfortunately, corroborated by the previous character of the man. One of the latest manifestations of his ambition was the attempt to add the island of Cyprus to his patriarchate. He was succeeded by Palladius, a presbyter of Seleucia. His death is variously stated to have occurred in A.D. 488, 490, 491.

Topical Outlines Nave's Bible Topics International Standard Bible Encyclopedia Online King James Bible King James Dictionary

Verse reference tagging and popups powered by VerseClick™.