Peter (Saint), Festivals of
Peter (Saint), Festivals Of
I. Depositio Petri in Catacombas et Pauli in via Ostiensi. The Catalogus Liberianus (354) first mentions the entombment of the bones of Peter and Paul as having taken place in the year of the consuls Tuscus and Bassus (258), and gives the date as III. Cal. Julii, that is, June 29. A festival in commemoration of that day is recorded in the Latin Church by Prudentius in the 4th century, by Augustine (Seram. 295-299), Maxim. of Turin (ibid. 66-69), and Leo the Great (ibid. 82-84) in the 5th; after the 6th it is noticed in all martyr chronicles. In the Greek Church it is stated by Theodorus Lector, in his Church history (ii, 16), as having been celebrated in Constantinople towards the close of the reign of Anastasius I (518); after the 7th century it is given in all calendars, even those of Copts, Ethiopians, and Armenians. In 1743 Benedict XIV decreed a celebration of eight days for the city of Rome; and in 1867, the eighteenth centenary, it was renewed with great magnificence by Pius IX.
II. Festum Cathedrae Petri Antiodienae, for February 22, mentioned in the Calendarium Liberianum, and celebrated in commemoration of the accession of the apostle Peter to the episcopal chair, without, however, specifying the locality of the chair. The same is the case with the Calendariumnt of Polemius Silvius (448). In the Ambrosian Liturgy, and in the Sacramentarium of Gelasius I, the festival is omitted altogether; but is found again in the Sacramentarium of Gregory, and after his time always.
III. Festum Cathedrae Petri Romanae, January 18, was generally confounded with II, but became independently established in the 8th century, and formally fixed during the Carlovingian age, to which time, also, belongs the final recognition of the tradition of the double episcopacy of St. Peter.
IV. Festum Sanctum Petri ad Vincula or in Vinculis, also called Festum. Catenarum Petri, August 1, is not mentioned until the 9th century, in Wandalbert's Martyrologium, and Pseudo-Beda's Homil. doe Vinculis Sancti Petri (Bedme, Opp. 3:96). In the Greek Church it is celebrated, Jan. 16, in the Armenian February 22. The latter Church also celebrated a festival of "the finger of the apostle Peter" (Assemani, F£u/chol. Eccles. Orient.), and the Abyssiunians commemorate on July 31 a festival in honor of St. Peter (Ludolf, Hist. AEthiops. page 424), but the origin and signification of the latter is not known. See Augusti, Denckwurdigkeiten, 3:175 sq.; Sinker, in Smith's Dict. of Christ. Antiq. 2:16-23-1628; Nilles, Kalendariums Muale Utriusque Ecclesiae, Orient. et Occident. volume 2; Zclkler, in Plitt-Herzog, Real Encyklop. s.v. (B.P.)