a noted pope of Rome, was originally named Camillo Borghese. He was born at Rome in 1552. In his early life he was a distinguished canonist and theologian; and, after the ordinary prelatical career at Rome, he rose first to the post of nuncio at the Spanish court, and afterwards to the cardinate in 1596 under Clement VIII. On the death of Leo XI in 1605, cardinal Borghese was elected to succeed him. His pontificate is rendered memorable by the concern to maintain its pretensions in Italy in all their integrity. Thus he was involved in the celebrated conflict with the republic of Venice, into which he was plunged at the very outset of his career. The original ground of dispute was the question of immunity from the jurisdiction of civil tribunals conceded to the clergy, who claimed to be tried by ecclesiastical tribunals alone. This claim the senate resisted; and further causes of dispute were added by a mortmain law, and a law prohibiting the establishment of new religious orders or associations unless with the sanction of the senate. Each party remaining inflexible in its determination, Paul V issued a brief directing a sentence of excommunication against the doge and the senate, and placing the republic under an interdict unless submission should be made within twenty-four days. The senate forbade the publication of the bull; and as the members of several monastic orders professed that they could not continue to perform religious worship in a country placed under interdict, they were allowed to quit Venice, and the senate appointed secular priests to perform service in their stead. The people remained perfectly quiet, and the bishops and vicars continued their functions as usual; but there was, nevertheless, an animated conflict maintained by the pen, in which the celebrated Fra Paolo Sarpi, SEE PAUL, Father. on the side of the republic, and on the papal side Bellarmine and Baronius, were the leaders. There were three points at issue between the pope and the senate:
(1) The senate had made a decree that no new convent or religious congregation should be founded without their permission;
(2) that no property or perpetual revenue of any kind should be bequeathed to the Church without their approbation;
(3) that clerical men accused of crime should be judged by the secular power like other citizens.
The king of France and the emperor took the part of Venice, the court of Spain that of the pope, and Italy was threatened with a war, like that of the Investitures (q.v.). Henry IV of France, however, proposed his mediation, and sent to Venice cardinal De Joyeuse, who, after consulting with the senate, proceeded to Rome, where he succeeded in effecting a compromise in 1607, and peace was restored, although dissatisfaction afterwards arose on the subject of the nomination of a patriarch. The decrees of the senate were maintained, but the two clerical culprits, in compliance with the wish of the French king, were given up to the pope, "saving the right of the republic to punish all offenders, clerical or lay, within its dominions." Upon this arrangement being made the interdict was removed. A misunderstanding of a similar nature arose between the pope and the crown of France (Louis XIII) as to the right of censorship of books, and as to the approval of the disciplinary decrees of the Council of Trent; but it was removed by mutual explanations. SEE SUAREZ. Pope Paul's administration was vigorous and enlightened. He reformed many abuses in the tribunals of the Roman court, and did much for the promotion of public works, for the restoration and preservation of antiquities, the improvement of the museums and libraries, and the embellishment of the city of Rome. He enlarged the Vatican and Quirinal palaces, restored the church of Santa Maria Maggiore, constructed or repaired aqueducts, made additions to the Vatican Library, collected statues and other antiquities, and built the handsome villa Mondragone at Frascati. Paul V was also much given to the improvement and providing of charitable and pious institutions. He likewise established the fortune of the Borghese family, which is one of the wealthiest of the Roman families. Paul V died Jan. 28, 1621, and was succeeded by Gregory XV. Paul V avoided decisions in all dogmatical controversy. Thus he reserved his judgment in the controversies on the doctrine of mercy, SEE MOLINA; SEE QUIETISM, and commanded silence to both parties in the controversy regarding the immaculate conception. He sainted Loyola and Charles Borromeo. See Bzovius, Vita Pauli V; De Montor, Hist. des souv. Pont. Romains; Muratori, Annales d'Italie, ann. 1616 and sq.; Ranke, Hist. of the Papacy, 1:604; Bower, Hist. of the Popes, vol. vii; Schrickh, Kirchengesch. seit der Ref. 3:346 sq.; 4:305 sq.; Le Bret, Gesch. v. Italien, 3:203 sq.; Riddle, Hist. of the Popes, vol. ii; Wetzer u. Welte, Kirchen-Lexikon (Romans Cath.), 8:232, 233.