Paul IV

Paul IV

pope of Rome, was the descendant of a noble Neapolitan family named Caraffa, and was born in Naples in 1476. His early career was distinguished for ascetic rigor. In 1507 he was appointed bishop of Chieti, in which see he labored most earnestly for the reformation of abuses, and for the revival of religion and morality. With this view he established, in conjunction with several congenial reformers, the congregation of secular clergy called Theatines (q.v.), and was himself the first superior. He was made cardinal in 1536, and organized the tribunal of the Inquisition in Rome. On the death of Marcellus II in 1555, although in his seventy-ninth year, he was elected to succeed. He entered upon the wider career which his new position opened for him with all the ardor of a young man, and with all the stern enthusiasm which had characterized him during life. He was remarkably large and lean, walked with a hurried step, and seemed to be all sinew. As he had never confined himself hitherto in his daily habits to any precise rules — he would often sleep during the day and study at night — so he ever followed in other matters the impulses of the moment. But these were swayed by opinions formed in the course of a long life, and which had now become a second nature. He seemed to know no other duty and no other business than the restoration of the old faith to its former domination. He enforced vigorously upon the clergy the observance of all the clerical duties, established a censorship, and completed the organization of the Roman Inquisition. But while he was thus intent upon strengthening the papal hierarchy, he also manifested good qualities of head and heart. Thus, e.g., he took measures for the alleviation of the burdens of the poorer classes, and for the better administration of justice, not sparing even his own nephews, whom he banished from Rome on account of their corrupt conduct and profligate life. His foreign relations involved him in much perplexity. He was embroiled with the emperor Ferdinand, with Philip II of Spain, and with Cosmo, grand-duke of Tuscany. Having condemned the principles of the Peace of Augsburg, he protested against its provisions. Under the weight of so many cares his old age gave way. He died Aug. 18, 1559. As soon as the news of his death became known to the people of Rome, they rose in insurrection, ran to the prison of the Inquisition, wounded a Dominican monk who acted as commissary, delivered all the prisoners, and burned the papers. They then threw down the statue of the pope, crying out, "Death to the Caraffas!" The tumult lasted several days, after which the conclave elected as new pope Pius IV (q.v.). Paul IV wrote, Tractat. de symbolo, de emendanda ecclesia ad Paulum III, regulas Theatinorum: — Tractat. de ecclesia Vaticana et ejus sacerdotum principatu de quadragesimal. observantia: — Parcenes ad Bernardum Ochium: —Note in Aristotelis Eihicam: — Public fidei profess: — Orationes et Epistole. See Caraccioli, Collectanea hist. de Vita Pauli IV (Colossians 1612, 4to); Magi, Disquisit. hist. de Pauli IV inculpata vita (Neap. 1672); Bromato, Vita di Paolo IV (Ravenna, 1748, 2 vols. 8vo); Ranke, Hist. of the Papacy, 1:207, 234; Ffoulkes, Divisions of Christendom, vol. i, § 67; Bower, Hist. of the Popes, vol. vii; Riddle, Hist. of the Papacy, vol. ii; Schrockh, Kirchengesch. seit der Reformation, 3:148 sq., 249 sq., 258 sq.; Hausser, Reformationsgesch. (1868) p. 296 sq.; Robertson, Hist. of Charles V. bk. xi and xii; Wetzer u. Welte, Kirchen-Lexikon (Romans Cath.), 8:231, 232.

Bible concordance for PAUL.

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