pope of Rome, was a Tuscan by birth. His family name was Ranieri. He was a native of Bledawhere he was born about the middle of the 11th century. He joined the Order of Clugny, and having been sent to Rome in the interests of his monastery, he was noticed by pope Gregory VII, who made him a cardinal. After Gregory's death and the short pontificate of Urban II, Paschal was elected pope. He refused the dignity, and even concealed himself, but was at last prevailed to accept the papal chair in 1099. He prosecuted the great contest of the investitures, begun by GregoryVII with the emperor Henry IV, against, whom he launched a fresh bull of excommunication. Henry's son and namesake, availing himself of this, revolted against his father, and, having deposed him, was acknowledged as king of the Germans by the title of Henry V. He then proceeded to Italy with an army, in order to cause himself to be crowned emperor. On the question of the investitures he was as stubborn as his father. After some conferences between him and the pope's ambassadors, Paschal proposed what appeared to be a reasonable compromise of the matter in dispute. "If the emperor," said he, "contends for his regal-rights, let him resume the donations on which those rights are founded, the duchies, margraviates, countships, towns, and manors which his predecessors have bestowed on the Church. Let the Church retain only its tithes and the donations which it has received from private bounty. If Henry renounces the right of investiture, the Church shall restore all it has received from secular princes since the time of Charlemagne" (Pagi, Vita Paschalis II; Fleury, Hist. Eccles). This proposal went to the root of the evil, and Paschal was probably sincere in making it: but the bishops, and especially the German bishops, who were possessed of large fiefs, strongly protested against it. In the mean time Henry arrived at Rome to be crowned, in 1110. He kissed the pope's feet according to custom, and entered hand in hand with him into the church of the Vatican; 'but here an explanation took place concerning the compromise, the result of which was that the treaty was broken off,' and Paschal refused to consecrate the emperor. The particulars have been differently viewed by the Church writers. Some say that Paschal could not fulfill his proposed renunciation of the temporalities of the Church owing to the opposition of the bishops; others say that Henry would not give up the right of investiture, because his counselors, and among the rest several German bishops who were about his person, unwilling to risk their domains and revenues, persuaded him not to renounce what they represented as an essential part of the imperial prerogatives and of the splendor of the imperial dignity. After repeated messages between the pope and the emperor, the latter, who wished to be crowned at all events, determined to frighten the pope into compliance. At the suggestion, it is said, of two German prelates, one of whom was the archbishop of Metz, Henry ordered his German soldiers to lay hands on the pope. A scuffle ensued; and the people of Rome, irritated at seeing their pontiff prisoner, fell on the German soldiers, and drove them back with considerable slaughter to their camp outside of the town. Henry, however, kept possession of the person of the pope, whom he dragged after him, stripped of his pontifical ornaments and bound with cords. Paschal remained for nearly two months in a state of confinement, during which he was assailed by the remonstrances of his clergy, many of whom were prisoners with him in the German camp, until at last he yielded to their entreaties, consented to consecrate Henry unconditionally, and gave up by a bull the right of investiture to the emperor. After the ceremony Henry returned to Germany, and Paschal thought it necessary to assemble a council in the Lateran to submit his conduct to the judgment of the Church. He declared to them at the same time that he would rather abdicate than break his word to the emperor, either by excommunicating or molesting him. After much deliberation, Paschal's cession of the right of investiture was solemnly condemned; and it was declared that the investiture of churchmen by lay hands was a heresy. The prelates of Franco and Italy, and even some of those of Germany, approved of the proceedings of the Lateran council, and several of the turbulent German feudatories revolted against Henry. The emperor, however; kept the field, and, having defeated his revolted subjects, marched again to Italy to terminate the question with the see of Rome. Paschal, blamed and even personally insulted by the Romans because of his indulgence towards Henry, and threatened at the same time by the latter, escaped to Benevento, and Henry, entering Rome, caused himself to be crowned again by the bishop of Benevento. After Henry's departure Paschal returned to Rome, but soon fell ill of fatigue and anxiety, and died in January, 1118. The question of the investiture was settled by a compromise in 1122, under Calixtus II, the successor of Gelasius. It was agreed that the bishops, being elected according to the canonical forms, should receive their regalia at the hand of the emperor, and do homage for them; but that in this ceremony the emperor should no longer use the ring and crosier, the insignia of spiritual authority, but the scepter only. Paschal had also been in controversy with Henry I of England on the same subject, but they had settled in 1108 on similar terms. See Vita Paschalis in Muratori, "Scriptores," vol. 3; Gfrorer, Gregorius VII u. s. Zeit; Baxmann, Gesch. der Politik derPapste; Collier, Eccles. Hist.; Stenzel, Gesch. Deutschl.
unter denfiwnk. Kaisern (Leips. 1827), 1:571, 612, 627, 667; Gervais, Gesch. D.eutschl. unter Heinrich V (Leips. 1841); Milman, Hist. of Latin Christianity, 4:67-125; 4:291,429-431; Hefele, Conciliengesch. vol. 5; Aschbach, Kirchen-Lexikon; Riddle, Hist. of the Papacy, 2:253; Bower, Hist. of the Popes, s.v. SEE INVESTITURE.