Pappenheim, Salomon Ben-seligmann
Pappenheim, Salomon Ben-Seligmann a very eminent Hebrew grammarian and lexicographer, was born in 1740 at Breslau, where his distinguished attainments and great piety secured for him the rabbinate of the Jewish community. He died March 4, 1814. The work which has immortalized his name is a lexicon of the Hebrew synonyms of the Bible, entitled The Curtains of Solomon (יריעות שלמה) (3 vols. 4to). The first volume, which was published at Dyhrenforth in 1784, consists of an introduction and three parts or sections, subdivided into forty-nine paragraphs. The introduction (i-xi) contains a grammatical dissertation (אותיות האמנתיו ובסבח וא 8ו המהפכת תוספת); the first part (p. 1-33), consisting of seven paragraphs, treats on those words which denote time, or on such substantives, adjectives, and verbs as express the idea of beginning, end, hurrying, tarrying, youth, age; the second part (p. 33-66), consisting of eleven paragraphs, treats on those words which denote space, or on expressions conveying the idea of place, even, straight, uneven, crooked, way, neighborhood, etc.; while the third part (p. 66-118), consisting of thirty-one paragraphs, embraces words which convey the idea of motion in its various modifications, et. going, springing, flowing, etc. The second volume, which was published at Redelheim in 1831, after the death of the author, with notes by the celebrated Wolf Heidenheim (q.v.) consists of an introduction and four parts, subdivided into twenty-six paragraphs. The introduction (p. 1-8) contains a psychological treatise (הגוŠ על אופן התקשרות הנפש עם); the first part (p. 9-39), consisting of fourteen sections, treats on words which express the idea of speaking or utterance in its various modifications; the second part (p. 39, 40) discusses words which denote hearing; the third part (p. 40-57), consisting of twelve sections, treats on words which refer to sight; while the fourth part (p. 57-75), consisting of twenty-three sections, treats on words which relate to the touch and smell. The third volume, which was published at Dyhrenforth in 1811, consists of a general introduction and one part, subdivided into fifty-seven sections, and treats on (שמות נרדפים המתיחסות אל המלאכה) those synonyms which convey the idea of action. The importance of this work can hardly be overrated. It is the only lexicon which embraces the synonyms of the whole Biblical Hebrew, as the contributions of Wessely, Luzzato, and others to this department are confined to single groups of words. Pappenheim's marvelous mastery of the Hebrew style, his keen perception, refined taste, critical acumen, and his philosophical mind, pre-eminently fitted him for this task. He also wrote a lexicon, or treatise, embracing those words and particles which are formed from the letters האמנתיו, entitled חשק שלמה, The Delight of Solomon, of which, however, only one part appeared (Breslau, 1802); and he has left in MS. A Critico- etymological and Synonymical Hebrew Lexicon, which has not as yet been published. See Geiger, in the Zeitschrift der deutschen morgenldandischen Gesellschaff (Leipsic, 1863), 17:325 sq.; Furst, Bibliotheca Judaica, 3:64, etc.