Panigarola, Francois a celebrated Italian Romanist, noted especially as a pulpit orator, was born of noble descent at Milan Jan. 6,1548. He was educated by Noel Conti and Aonio Paleario, and early gave proof of great vivacity of mind and a wonderful memory. He studied law for several years at Pavia and Bologna, at the same time leading a very disorderly life. Recalled to other sentiments by the death of his father, he entered the Order of Cordeliers in 1567, and soon distinguished himself by his talent for preaching. In 1571 he went to Paris to finish his theological studies, where he preached before Catharine de' Medici. After having stopped at Lyons and Antwerp, he returned in 1573 to his own country, and for several years taught theology in different convents of his order. His sermons, which in the opinion of Tiraboschi, display the richest imagination, great force of thought, and energetic style, are full of gravity, although a little redundant. They gained him the merited reputation of the most eloquent orator of his country's contemporaries. After having passed two years near San Carlo Borromeo, who highly esteemed Panigarola, he was promoted to the bishopric of Asti in 1587. Two years after he was sent to Paris, to sustain there by his eloquence the party of the League. In 1590 he returned to his diocese. which he administered till: his death with great zeal. He died May 31, 1594. Among his eighty and more works, printed or in MS., we will quote, Lezioni xx contro Calvino (Venice, 1583, 4to): — Prediche spezzate (Asti. 1591. 4to): — Tre prediche fatte in Parigi (ibid. 1592, 8vo): — Compendio degli Annali Ecclesiastici del Baronio (Venice, 1593, 4to): — Sei quaresimali fatti in Roma (Rome, 1596, 2. vols. 4to): — Specchio di guerra (Bergamo, 1597, 4to): — Conciones Latinae (Cologne, 1600, 8vo): — Homiliae Romanic habitue anno 1580 (Venice, 1604, 8vo): — Rhetoricoe ecclesiasticcu libri iii. ( Cologne, 1605, 8v): — La quaresima in sonetti con le figure (Bergamo, 1606, 4to ): — Il predicatoe, o sia commentario al libro dell' Eloquenza di Denmetrio Phalereo (Venice, 1609, 4to): — Sagri concertt (Milan, 1625, 4to): — Carmina Latina, in vol. vii of the "Carmina poetarum Italorum." Panigarola has left some very interesting menoires upon his life, preserved in MS. in the library of St. Ango of Milan and in the Ambrosian library of the same city. See Bongratia de Varenna, Vita di Panigarola (Milan, 1617, 4to; in French in the Bibliotheque of Bullart); Ughelli, Italia sacra, t. iv; Argelati, Scriptores mediolanenses Tiraboschi, Storia della letter. Italiana.