Pallavicino, Pietro Sforza
Pallavicino, Pietro Sforza an Italian prelate of great note, distinguished especially as a historical writer, son of the marquis Alexander Pallavicino and Frances Sforza, was born at Rome Nov. 20, 1607. Much to the disgust of his father he chose the ecclesiastical life. Pietro's conduct was so exemplary that he was early appointed one of those prelates who assist in the assemblies called "congregations" at Rome. He was also received into the famous academy of humorists, among whom he often occupied the position of president He was likewise governor of Jesi, and afterwards of Orvieto and Camerino, under pope Urban VIII. But all these advantages did not hinder him, when the papal displeasure threatened him, from renouncing the world and entering, in 1637, the Society of the Jesuits. As soon as he had completed his novitiate he taught philosophy, and then theology. Innocent X, who felt kindly disposed towards Pallavicino. and considered it politic for the pontificate to recognise erudition, nominated Pallavicino to examine into divers matters relating to the pontificate, among others into the Jansenistic controversy (1651-1653), and Alexander VII created him a cardinal in 1657. This pontiff was an old friend of Pallavicino, who had been serviceable to him when he first came to Rome as simply Fabio Chigi. Pallavicino had even contributed to advance his temporal fortune, and had received him into the academy of the humorists, in gratitude for which Chigi had addressed to him some verses, printed in his book, entitled "Philomathi Musae Juveniles." At the same time that Pallavicino obtained a place in the sacred college, which was not until 1659, for he hesitated to accept the proffered honor, he was also appointed examiner of the bishops, and afterwards a member of the congregation of the Holy Office, i.e. the Inquisition, and of that of the Council of Trent, whose history he wrote in a most masterly manner. He died at Rome June 5 1667. The best-known of all his writings is his Historia del Concilio de Trento (Rome, 1656-1657, 2 vols. fol.; 1665, 3 vols. 4to), intended as a reply to the still more celebrated and liberal, although by Romanists deeply suspected, work of Paul Sarpi. Pallavicino wrote, of course, as a Jesuit should write, in defence of the papacy, and with an ultramontane coloring. Hence the classical value of his work, is limited, but its style is excellent, and his learning no one has called in question. Comp. Ranke, Gesch. der rom. Papste, ii, 237 sq.; 3, Appendix; Britschar, Beurtheilunq der Controversen Sarpis u. Pallanicino's — (Tubin. 1844); Buckley, Hist. of the Council of Trent (Lond. 1852), Preface; Danz, Gesch. des Tridentinischen Concils (Jena, 1846, 8vo), Preface. Among his other works may be mentioned Vindicationes Soc. Jes. (Rome, 1649): — .Del Bene, a philosophical treatise: — Arte della Perfezione Cristiana-I Fasti Sacri (the unpublished MS. is in the library of Parma): — Ermengilda, a tragedy (ibid. 1644): — Gli Avvertimenti Gramm(tticali (ibid. 1661): — Trattato dello Stilo e delDialogo (ibid. 1662): — and Lettere (ibid. 1668). See Tiraboschi, Storia della Letter. Ital. 8:132-136; Sotwel, Script Soc. Jesu; Burnet, Hist. of the Reformation; Schrockh, Kirchengesch. seit der Reformation, vol. iv; Stillingfleet, Works, vol. i; Mosheim, Eccles. Hist. vol. iii; Hagenbach, Hist. of Doctrines (see Index).