Orange, Council of
Orange, Council of (Concilium Arausicanun),
(1), an ecclesiastical gathering which convened on Nov. 8, 441, at Orange, a city of Provence, France; was presided over by St. Hilary of Aries, and was attended by seventeen bishops, from three Gaulish provinces, among them Eucherius of Lyons, Ingenius of Embrun, Claudius (bishopric unknown), and Maximus of Riez. Thirty canons were published, substantially as follows:
"1. Declares that priests may, in the bishop's absence, confirm (by administering the holy chrism and the blessing) heretics, who, being in danger of death, desire to be reconciled.
"2. Directs that ministers when about to baptize shall have the chrism ready, with which they shall anoint the neophytes immediately after baptism, according to their custom of only anointing with the chrism once, That if any one by chance shall not have been anointed with the chrism of baptism, it shall be made known to the bishop at confirmation, but not as being absolutely necessary, since, there being but one benediction of the chrism, that which is given to the baptized person at confirmation is sufficient. SEE CHRISM.
"3. Directs that penitents when dangerously ill shall be received to communion without the imposition of hands; that if they survive they shall remain in a state of penance until, having fully accomplished it, they may, rightly receive the communion after reconciliation by imposition of hands.
"4. Directs that penance be permitted to those clerks who desire it. "5. Forbids to deliver up criminals who have taken refuge in a church. "6. Exconmunicates those who seize upon the slaves of the clergy in the place of their own, who have taken sanctuary in the church.
"7. Excommunicates those who treat persons set free by the Church as slaves.
"8. Forbids a bishop to ordain any one living in another diocese.
"9. Directs that if a bishop shall desire to ordain persons belonging to another Church, of irreproachable character, he shall either bring them to live in his own Church, or obtain leave of their own bishop.
"10. Directs that where a bishop has built a church within the territory of another bishop with the latter's permission, he shall suffer him to consecrate it, and the bishop of the place shall on his part grant to the bishop who built the church the right of ordaining, as clerks to serve it, such persons as the bishop of the place shall present to him, or of approving his choice if they be already ordained.
"11. Forbids bishops to receive persons excommunicated by their own bishop until they are reconciled.
"12. Directs that persons suddenly deprived of the power of speech shall be reconciled or baptized if they give, or shall have given beforehand, a sign that they wish it.
"13. Directs that all pious offices ('quxcumque pietatis sunt') be performed towards insensible persons.
"14. Directs that the communion shall be given to baptized enerrgunens, who do all in their power to become healed, and who follow obediently the counsels of the clergy, because the virtue of the sacrament may strengthen them against the attacks of the devil and purify them.
"15. Directs that in cases of necessity holy baptism may be administered to energumens.
"16. Forbids to ordain those who have been openly possessed by an evil spirit, and deprives of all their functions those who become so after ordination.
"17. Directs that the chalice be offered with the 'capsa,' and be consecrated with the eucharistical mixture ('cum capsa et calix ofierendus est et admixtione eucharistiae consecrandus').
"18. Orders that thenceforwards in all the churches of the province the Gospel should be read to the catechumens.
"19. Forbids catechumens to enter the baptistery.
"20. Forbids to suffer catechumens to receive the blessing with the faithful, even in family prayers, and directs that they be warned to come separately for the blessing, and to receive the sign of the cross.
"21. Enacts that in the case of two bishops only consecrating a bishop, without the participation of the other bishops of the province, if the bishop was consecrated against his own will he shall be put into the place of one of the consecrating bishops, and some one consecrated to fill the place of the latter; but if his consecration was done with his own free consecrant, he shall be deposed, as well as the two consecrating bishops.
"22. Declares that in future married men shall not be ordained deacons, except they will.make a vow of chastity.
"23. Directs that married destoals who will not live in a state of continence be deprived (comp. Lea, Hist. of Sacerdotal Celibacy, p. 79).
"24. Excepts from this law those who had been previously ordained, but forbids to confer any higher order upon them.
"25. Forbids to elevate a person twice married to any higher degree than that of subdeacon.
"26. Forbids the ordination of deaconesses in future, and directs that those actually ordained shall receive the benediction together with lay persons.
"27. Directs that the widows shall make profession of chastity, and wear the proper dress.
"28. Directs, that they who have broken their profession of virginity shall be put to penance.
"29. Confirms the regulation of the council.
"30. Directs that when a bishop is unable to discharge his duties, he shall commit the performance of them to another bishop, and not to a mere priest." In this council, moreover, certain bishops were censured who had broken the canons of the Council of Riez in 439, by refusing to allow the annual provincial councils with the others as ordered. See Labbe, Concil. 3:1446; Harduin, Concil. 1:1187.
(2) Another Church council was convened on July 3, 529, by Caesarius of Arles; and was attended under his presidency by thirteen' bishops. Twenty- five articles concerning grace and free-will, and directed against the semi- Pelagian doctrines then prevalent, were drawn up and signed, and subsequently confirmed by pope Boaifacius II:
"1. Condemns those who maintain that the sin of Adam has affected only the body of man by rendering it mortal, and has not affected the soul also.
"2. Condemns those who maintain that the sin of Adam hath injured himself only, or that the death of the body is the only effect of his transgression which has descended to his posterity.
"3. Condemns those who teach that grace is given in answer to the prayer of man, and who deny that it is through grace that he is brought to pray at all.
"4. Condemns those who teach that God waits for our wish before purifying us from sin, and that he does not by his Spirit give us the wish to be purified.
"5. Condemns those who maintain that the act of faith, by which we believe in him, who justifieth, is not the work of grace, but that we are capable of doing so of ourselves.
"7. Condemns those who maintain that man can think or do anything good, as far as his salvation is concerned, without grace.
"8. Condemns those who maintain that some come to the grace of baptism by their own free-will, and others by the supernatural help of divine mercy." The seventeen other canons are, properly speaking, sentences taken out of the works of SS. Augustine and Prosper, recognizing the necessity of grace, prayer, and humility. To these were appended the following propositions:
"(1.) That all baptized persons can, if they will, work out their salvation.
"(2.) That God hath predestinated no one to damnation.
"(3.) That God, by his grace, gives to us the first beginning of faith and charity, and that he is the author of our conversion." See Labbe, Concil. 4, 1666; Harduin, Concil. 2; 1110. See also, on both councils, Dollinger, Lehrb. der Kinchengesch. 1, 114 sq.; Hefele, Conciliengesch. 2, 274, sq., 705, 714, 716.