Olearius the name of a German family, renowned for having produced several generations of learned Protestant theologians. Thus we find,
1. JOHANN OLEARIUS (1), born at Wesel Sept. 17; 1546. His family name was Kupfermann, but his father being an oil-manufacturer, he changed it to Olearius. He studied at Dusseldorf, Marburg, and Jena. In 1573 he followed Heshusius, who was, on account of his zeal against Calvinism, obliged to retire to Prussia. Olearius became professor at the University of Konigsberg. In 1577 he went to that of Helmstadt, where he was in 1579 appointed professor of Hebrew. About that time he married the daughter of Heshusius. In 1601 he became superintendent at Halle, and taught Hebrew for some time in the gymnasium of that city. He died there Jan. 26, 1623. He wrote, Disputationum theologicarum partes II: — Verzeichniss 200 Calvinischer Irrthiimer in den Anhaltischen Buchern.
2. GOTTFRIED OLEARIUS (1), second son of the preceding, was born at Halle Jan. 1,1604. He became successively adjunct professor of philosophy at Wittenberg, pastor at Halle, and superintendent of that city, where he died, Feb. 20; 1685. He wrote, Erklarung des Buches Hiob in 55 Predigten (Lips. 1633, 1645, 1672, 4to): — Biblica theoretico-practica adnotata (Halle, 1676, 4to): — Homiliarum catecheticarumplus quam 700 delineatio (ibid. 1680, 8vo).
3. JOHANN OLEARIUS (2), brother of Gottfried, was born at Halle Sept. 17, 1611. He was first pastor at Halle, and afterwards general superintendent at Weissenfels, where he died, April 14,1684. His most important works are, Oratoria ecclesiastica methodice adornata (Halle, 1665, 8vo): — Adsertionum philologicarum heptas ex historia Magorum (Leips. 1671, 4to): — Theologia exegetica (ibid. 1674, 8vo): — Geistliches Handbuch der Kinder Gottes (ibid. 1674, 8vo): — Biblische Erklarung (ibid. 1678- 81, 5 vols. fol.).
4. JOHANN GOTTFRIED OLEARIUS, son of Gottfried, was born at Halle Sept. 28, 1635. After being for a while pastor at Halle he was appointed superintendent at Arnstadt, where he became very popular, and was so attached to the people that he declined the appointment of first preacher to the court at Gotha, which was offered him in 1689. He died at Arnstadt May 20 1711. Besides a number of dissertations on various subjects, he wrote several works, the most important of which is entitled Abacus patrologicus (Jena, 1673, 8vo). The 2d edition was published by his son, Johann Gottlieb, under the title Bibliotheca scriptorum ecclesiasticorum (ibid. 1711. 2 vols. 4to), with an introduction by J. F. Buddaeus.
5. JOHANN OLEARIUS (3), a philologist and theologian, brother of the preceding, was born at Halle May 5, 1639. He became professor of Greek at Leipsic in 1664, and of theology in 1677. He endeavored to soften the theological dissensions so common at that time, which were often making trouble in the university. He died at Leipsic Aug. 6, 1713. Among his theological works we notice Elementa herneneuticae sacrae (Leips. 1698, 8vo): — De stylo Novi Testamenti (ibid. 1668, 4to; four editions, the latest in 1699): — Exercitationes philologicae Graecum epistolarum dominicaliumr textum concernentes (ibid. 1672, 4to): — Synopsis controversiarum selectiorum (ibid., 1710, 8vo): — Doctrina theologice moralis (ibid. 1688); reprinted with the following work: — Introductio in theologiam casualenm (ibid. 1703, fol.). He was also one of the most active contributors to the Acta Eruditorum during the first years of its publication.
6. JOHANN CHRISTOPHER OLEARIUS, son of Johann Gottfried, was born at Halle Sept. 17,1668. He studied theology at Jena, and in 1693 came to Arnstadt, where, on account of his numismatic learning, he was intrusted with the classification of the valuable collection of coins of the prince of Schwarzburg. In 1736 he became superintendent of Arnstadt. He died March 31, 1747. Among his works we notice Historie der Stadt Arnstadt (Jena, 1701, 8vo): — Clericatus Schwarzburgicus (ibid. 1701, 12mo): — Clericatus. Thuringice prodromus (ibid. 1704, 8vo): — Evangelischer
Liederschatz (ibid. 1705-1706, 4 pts. 8vo): — Prefamen de Johanna papissa (Arnst. 1722 8vo). He published also several editions of the - Arnstddtisches Gesangbuch (ibid. 1701, 1703, 1706, 12mo; 1737, 8vo), etc.
7. JOHANN GOTTLIEB OLEARIUS, a German jurist and biographer, brother of the preceding, was born at Halle June 22, 1684. He was professor of law at Konigsberg, and assessor of the criminal court. He died July 12, 1734. He wrote, De Luthero exjuris studioso theoloqo et Zieglero ex theologo jurisconsulto facto (Jena, 1710): — De variis atheos convincendi methodis (ibid. 1711), etc.
8. GOTTFRIED OLEARIUS (2), a German theologian and philologist, son of Johann Olearius (3), was born at Leipsic July 23, 1672. After studying at Leipsic, he made in 1693 a journey through England and Holland, and after, his return was appointed, in 1709, professor of theology at Leipsic. He died there Nov. 13, 1715. Among his works we notice Analysis logica epistolae ad Ebrceos, cumn observationibus philologicis (Leips. 1706, 4to): — Observationes sacrae inEvangelium Matthaei (ibid. 1713, 1734, 4to): — Collegium pastorale (ibid. 1718, 4to); it is a series of instructions for young pastors, written in German. He published also a Latin translation of Stanley's History of Philosophy, to which he added a dissertation, De Philosophia Eclectica; and a highly esteemed edition of Philostratus (ibid. 1709, fol.), with notes, a preface, and a Latin translation. This volume contains all that remains of the Greek writers who bore that name. See Acta Erudiforum, 1711, p. 419-424; 1713, p. 428 sq.; Jocher, A 1. Gelehrten-Lexikon; Hunnius, Apologia J. G. Oleaiii (Dresden, 1717, 8vo); Walch, Bibl. Theolog.; Otto, In exsequias Olearii (1747, fol.); Gotten, Das jetztlebende gelehrte Europa, vol. ii; Becker, Kurze Fragen aus der Kirchenhistorie (Jena, 1751), p. 9735; Wetzel, Auserlesene Theologische Bibliothek, vol. 33; Hirschinlg, Handbuch; Lipsius, Bibl. Numaria (Leips. 1801), vol. ii; Ersch u. Gruber, Encyklopidie; Arnoldt, HIistorie d. Konigsberger Univ. vol. ii; Chauffepi, Dict.' Hist.; Niceron; Memoires, vol. vii; Hoefer, Nouv. Biog. Generale, 38:603. sq. See also Hallam, Literature, 2:266; Mosheim. Ecclesiastes Hist. vol. 3; Hook, Ecclesiastes Biog. 7:458 sq.; Genesis Biog. Diet. s.v. (J. N. P.)