Og (Heb. id. עוֹג, probabsly a shortened form of עֹנֶג. i.e. עֹנֶק, giant, lit. long- necked [but from a statement of Manetho that Hyk (Lsc) in the word Hyksos is the Rephaite name for King, it has been inferred that Og (עֹג) is but an attempt to represent the same in Hebrew letters (see Jour. Sac. Lit.
Jan. 1852, p. 363); some, but without any probability, would connect the name with the Greek Ogyges (Ewald, Gesch. 1:306; 2:269)1; Sept. ῎Ωγ; Joseph. ῎Ωγυς. Ant. 4:5, 3), an Amoritish king of Bashan (Nu 21:33; Nu 32:33; De 4:47; De 31:4), reigning over sixty cities, of which the chief were Ashtaroth and Edrei (Jos 13:12), in the time of the entrance into Canaan, B.C. 1618. SEE AMORITE. We find from Scripture that he was, with his children and his people, defeated and exterminated by the Israelites under Moses at Edrei (Nu 21:33; De 1:4; De 3:3; De 29:7; Jos 2:10), immediately after the conquest of Sihon, who is represented by Josephus as his friend and ally (Joseph. Ant. 4:5,3). His many walled cities were taken (De 3:4-10), and his kingdom assigned, with its capital Ashtaroth, to the transjordanic tribes, especially the half-tribe of Manasseh (De 3:1-13; Jos 9:10; Jos 13:12,30). SEE BASHAN. "In form he was a giant, so that his bedstead was preserved as a memorial of his huge stature — (De 3:11; Jos 13:12.) SEE GIANT. How it got in 'Rabbath of the children of Ammon' we are not told; perhaps the Ammonites had taken it in some victory over Og. The verse itself has the air of a later edition (Dathe), although it is of course possible that the Hebrews may have heard of so curious a relic as this long before they conquered the city where it was treasured. Rabbath was first subdued in the reign of David (2Sa 12:26); but it does not therefore follow that De 3:11 was not written till that time (Havernick. ad loc.). Some have supposed that this was one of the common flat beds, SEE BED, sometimes used on the housetops of Eastern cities, but made of iron instead of palm-branches, which would not have supported the giant's weight. It has been conjectured by some (Michaelis, Vater, and others) that the words עֶרֶשׂ בִּרזֶל, eires barzel, mean a 'sarcophagus of black basalt'- a rendering of which they, however, hardly admit. The Arabs still regard black basalt as iron, because it is a stone 'ferrei coloris atque duritia'. (Pliny, 36:11), and 'contains a large percentage of iron.' SEE IRON. It is most abundant in the Hauran; and indeed is probably the cause of the name Argob (the stony) given to a part of Og's kingdom. This receptacle was 9 cubits long and 4 cubits broad. It does not of course follow that Og was 15½ feet high. Maimonides (More Nebochim, 2:48) sensibly remarks that a bed (supposing 'a bed' to be intended) is usually one third longer than the sleeper; and Sir J. Chardin, as well as other travelers, have observed the ancient tendency to make mummies and tombs far larger than the natural size of men, in order to leave an impression of wonder." The giant stature of Og. and the power and bravery of his people, excited a dread which God himself alleviated by his encouragement to Moses before the battle; and the impression of this victory lingered long in the national memory (Ps 135:11; Ps 136:20). He was one of the last representatives of the giant-race of Rephaim. According to Eastern traditions, he escaped the Deluge by wading beside the ark (Sale, Koran, ch. v, p. 86). He was supposed to be the largest of the sons of Anak, and a descendant of Ad. He is said to have lived no less than 3000 years, and to have refused the warnings of Jethro (Shoaib), who was sent as a prophet to him and his people (D'Herbelot, s.v. Falasthin, Anak). Soiuthi wrote a long book about him and his race, chiefly taken from Rabbinic traditions, and called Aug fi khaber Aug (ib. s.v. Aug). See, too, the Journal Asiatique for 1841, and Chronique de Tabari, trad. du Persan par Dubeux, 1:48, f. Other legends about'Og may be found in Ben-Uzziel on Nu 21:33; Midrash Jalkft, fol. 13 (quoted by Ewald), and in Mohammedan writers: as that one of his bones long served for a bridge over a river; that he roasted at the sun a fish freshly caught, etc. An apocryphal book of king Og, which probably contained these and other traditions, was condemned by pope Gelasius (Decref. 6:13; Sixt. Senensis, Bibl. Sanct. p. 86). SEE REPHAIM.