Odd-fellows the name assumed by one of the most extensive self-governed provident associations in the world. The institution, though in its secrecy and many usages closely resembling the masonic order, is so largely devoted to philanthropic labors as to deserve a short historical notice here. The order was originated in Manchester in 1812, although isolated "lodges" had existed in various parts of the country for some time previously. These latter were generally secret fraternities, humble imitations of Free-masonry adopting a similar system of initiatory rites, phraseology, and organization — instituted for social and convivial purposes, and only occasionally extending charitable assistance to members. On its institution in Manchester, the main purpose of Odd-fellowship was declared by its laws to be, "To render assistance to every brother who may apply through sickness, distress, or otherwise, if he be well attached to the queen and government, and faithful to the order." From attempts to abolish its convivial character a schism arose in 1813. The Manchester Unity, which was then founded, still constitutes the principal body of British Odd- fellows. In the United States of America the first lodge was instituted in 1819; and from this country, where the order is by far the largest and most powerful, it has spread into Germany, Switzerland, Australia, South America, and the Hawaiian Islands, working under charters received from the American order. Candidates for admission must be free white males, of good moral character, twenty-one years of age or over, who believe in a Supreme Being, the Creator and Preserver of the universe. Fidelity not only to the laws and obligations of the order, but to the laws of God, the laws of the land, and all the duties of citizenship, is strictly enjoined; but the order is a moral, not a religious organization,

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