Nova Zembla (Russ. Nowaja *Zemlja, "New Land"), the name given to a chain of islands lying in the Arctic Ocean (lat. between 70° 30' and 76° 30' N. and long. between 52° and 66° E.), and included within the government of Archangel. Length of the chain, 470 miles; average breadth, 56 miles. The most southern island is specially called Nova Zembla; of the others, the principal are Matthew's Land and Litke's Land. They were discovered in 1553, and are wild, rocky, and desolate — the vegetation being chiefly moss, lichens, and a few shrubs. The highest point in the chain is 3475 feet above the level of the sea. Mean temperature in summer, at the southern extremity, 35.51°; in winter, 3.21°. Nova Zembla has no permanent inhabitants; but, as the coasts swarm with whales and walruses, and the interior with bears, reindeers, and foxes, they are periodically frequented by fishermen and hunters.