Nepos an Egyptian bishop, who flourished in the first half of the 3d century, was a believer in Chiliasm and in the literal interpretation of Scripture, and consequently an opponent of Origen's system. He wrote a work, ῎Ελεγχος ἀλληγοριστῶν, now lost, which was at the time considered by his party in Egypt as an incontrovertible argument in favor of Christ's earthly kingdom. This, like all similar works, was undoubtedly based on the Apocalypse, but we possess no particulars as to the manner in which he represented the millennium. Gennadius says that he separated the resurrection of the just from that of the unjust, which is to occur only at the end of the millennium, accompanied by all the circumstances described in Revelation 20, probably because he everywhere understood it in a literal sense. Bishop Dionysius of Alexandria complained that many neglected the Scriptures for this work of Nepos, in which they believed they discovered great secrets. He found himself even obliged, after the death of Nepos, to convene at Arsinoe an assembly of presbyters and teachers for the purpose of examining into the doctrines of the work. The meeting lasted three days, and ended in all renouncing the Chiliast doctrine. Still Dionysius, in view of the reputation of Nepos and of his work, thought it necessary to refute the doctrines therein contained, and he wrote for that purpose his Περὶ ἐπαγγελιῶν, which, from its being a general refutation of Chiliasm, was by Jerome considered as directed against Irenmeus, and by Theodoret as against Cerinthus. The fragments of this work contained in Eusebius are the sources of our knowledge concerning Nepos and his party. It reproved the doctrine of Nepos in a very gentle manner, and in nowise justifies the representation that Nepos was formally condemned, as has been asserted in later times (Libell. synod. in Mansi, Coll. cone. 1:1017). According to Fulgentius. (in Pint. Arian. c. 2), who also considers Nepos a heretic, his party still counted adherents in the 6th century. See Eusebius, Hist. Eccles. 7:24 sq.; Gennadius, De Dogm. Eccles. c. 55; Tillemont, Mem. 4:261 sq. (ed. Venet.); Walsch, Ketzerhistor. volume 2; Schupart, De chiliasmo Nepotis (Giessen, 1724); Walsch, Einleitung in die Religionstreitigkeiten der luth. Kirche, 2:559; Neander, Church Hist. 1:652; Guericke, Ancient Chur/ch Hist. page 196. (J.N.P.)

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