National Synods

National Synods Provincial and national synods have, by immemorial practice of the Roman Catholic Church, the right of condemning heresies and errors, and of correcting abuses of all kinds in particular churches. Paul of Samosata, Photinus, Sabellius, Arius, Eustathius, Apollinaris, the Donatists, Pelagians, etc., were all condemned in particular councils in the first instance. The particular councils of Arles, Orange, Carthage, Toledo, Gangra, etc., pronounced judgments in controversies of faith; not to speak of more recent de cisions of the same kind. The objection of Bossuet, who found fault with the principle of the English Reformation, viz., that every national Church was a complete body in itself, and might examine and reform errors and corruptions in doctrine and worship, falls therefore to the ground, in view of the practice of his own Church. See Bossuet, Variations; Fleury, list. 1:157, s. 37; Palmer, On the Chzurch, 1:417; Walcott, Sacred Archaeol. s.v.; Aschbach, Kirchen-Lexikon, s.v. National Synoden. SEE SYNODS. (J.N.P.)

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