Musculus, Andreas

Musculus, Andreas originally Meuse, a German theologian, was born in 1514 at Schneeberg, in Saxony. Having graduated in the gymnasium of his native place, he went to Leipsic, where he studied, besides the scholastics, the ancient languages and Hebrew. Here he became acquainted with the writings of the Reformation, and the study of these estranged him from his Church. Having completed his studies, he returned to his native place, where he openly declared himself for the Lutheran doctrine. In 1538 he went to Wittenberg, where he very closely joined Luther, for whose doctrine he soon developed a great zeal. "For my part, I say it openly, there has never been a greater man on earth since the times of the apostles than Luther. In this one man all the gifts of God are concentrated. Whosoever will, let him put side by side the gifts, light, reason, and knowledge of the old teachers and those of Luther respecting spiritual things, and he will soon perceive that there is as much difference between the old teachers and Luther, as between the light of the sun and that of the moon." At the suggestion of Agricola (q.v.), the preacher to the elector of Brandenburg, he went to Frankfort in 1540, where he lectured, preaching at the same time in the church which formerly belonged to the Franciscans. In the year 1544 he was appointed pastor primarius and professor ordinarius, which positions he held until his death, September 26, 1581. He belonged to those theologians who in 1576 and a year later wrote the Torgau Book and the Concordiae Formula (q.v.), and was one of the most orthodox on this point, as he was formerly one of the most zealous against those who did not strictly adhere to Luther's doctrines. Thus he had a bitter controversy with Staniarus and Staphylus regarding the mediatorship of Christ, and especially with his colleague Prsetorius, who rather followed Melancthon. He defended the doctrine "that the law is necessary for repentance before faith, but is unnecessary to him who is born again." Besides these theological controversies, which were rather necessitated by the circumstances of those times, he had a constant fight with the magistrate of Frankfort. He published an extract of Luther's works, under the title Thesaurus (Frankf. 1573). Altogether we have of him about forty-six writings, which are all given by Spieker, Lebensgesch. des Andreas Musculus (Frankf.-on-the-Oder, 1858), page 310. See Herzog, Real- Encyklop. s.v.; Supplenent to Jocher's Gelehrten-Lex. by Rottermund, s.v.; Gieseler, Church Hist. (New York, 1863, Smith's transl.), 4:439, 483. (B.P.)

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