Muller, Heinrich (1), Dr
Muller, Heinrich (1), Dr.
a noted German divine, was born October 18, 1631, at Lubeck, a place which his parents were obliged to quit because of Wallenstein's hordes. His earliest religious impressions he received from his mother Elizabeth, to whom he was indebted, like Augustine to his mother Monica, or Chrysostom to Anthusa. Although of a feeble constitution, Muller made such progress in the school of his native place that when, in 1644, his parents:-returned to Rostock he was matriculated as a student of philosophy, though only thirteen years of age. For three years he attended the lectures of Liitkemann (q.v.), went in 1647 to Greifswalde to study theology, and was honored with the degree of magister artium. Having travelled for some time in order to enrich his store of knowledge, he returned in 1651 to Rostock, where he commenced a series of lectures, which were so highly spoken of that the magistrate appointed him archdeacon of St.Marien Kirche when hardly twenty years of age. A year later the University of Helmstadt conferred upon him the degree of doctor of divinity, his own university not acknowledging him worthy until seven years afterwards. In 1659 he was appointed professor of Greek, in 1662 he became a member of the theological faculty and pastor, and in 1671 the whole clergy unanimously appointed him as their superintendent, and this position 'he held until his death, which occurred September 13, 1675. Muller belonged to those men whom Providence had called to sow the seed of a new and fresh evangelical life in a soil which was enriched with the blood of the Thirty-Years' War, Lutheran orthodoxy, which had become weakened through constant controversies, not being sufficiently strong to successfully supplant error by truth in life as well as in faith. Christianity was to Muller not a dogma, but life, and thus he may be regarded, in connection with Job. Arndt (q.v.), Val. Andrea (q.v.), and Chr. Scriver, as the predecessor of Spener; and like the writings of Arndt and Scriver, his own writings are read by the German people up to this day. Muller was a voluminous writer, and wrote not only in German, but also in Latin. The best known of his works are, Apostolische Schlusskette und Kraftkern (Frankfort, 1633, and often): — Evangelische Schlusskette (ibid. 1763, and often): — Evangelischer Herzensspiegel (ibid. 1679): — Himmlischer Liebeskuss (Rostock, 1659): — Kreuz, Buss- u. Betschule (ibid. 1651, and often): — Geistliche Erquickungsstunden (ibid. 1663, and often):Orator ecclesiasticus, etc. (ibid. 1659): — Conjugii clericorum patrocinium (ibid. 1665): — Harmonia Veteris Novique Test. chronologica (ibid. 1668): — Theologia scholastica (ibid. 1656). For a list of his writings, see Witte, Memoriae theologorum nostri saeculi clarissimorunt renovatae, decas xv (Frankfort, 1684), page 1891; Rottermund, Supplement zu Jicher's Gelehrten-Lexikon, 5:57. See also Koch, Geschichte des deutschen Kirchenliedes (Stuttgard, 1868), 4:66 sq.; J.G. Russwurm, in his edition of Muller's Erquickungsstunden (Reutlingen, 1842); Bittcher, in Tholuck's Liter. Anzeiger, 1844, No. 15-18; Dr. H. Muller, eine Lebensbeschreibung von Aichel (Hamburg, 1854); Wild, Leben u. Auswahl von Miller's Schriften, in Klaiber's Evang. Volksbibliothek (Stuttgard, 1864), volume 3; Niedner, Lehrbuch der christl. Kirchengeschichte (Berlin, 1866), page 788; Bibliotheca Sacra, July 1868, page 587; Kitto, October 1853, page 208; Hase, Church Hist. page 449. (B.P.)