Moser, Johann Jacob
Moser, Johann Jacob a distinguished German Protestant jurist and hymnologist, noted for his efforts in behalf of the Church in her relation with the State, was born at Stuttgard, January 18, 1701. He studied law in the University of Tubingen, where he graduated in 1720, and was the very same year appointed extraordinary professor. As he had, however, but a small audience there, he went in 1721 to Vienna. The emperor and the vice-chancellor, count of Schonborn, offered him a very prominent position on condition that he should abjure the Lutheran doctrines, but he steadfastly refused. On his return to his country, he was accused of having given to the emperor information concerning affairs which the duke of Wiirtemberg desired should remain secret. In 1724 he returned to Vienna, and was still better received than the first time, the count of Schonborn presenting him a pension, and intrusting him with divers works concerning jurisprudence.
Recalled to Stuttgard in 1726, Moser was appointed counsellor of the regency, and the following year professor of jurisprudence in the ducal college of T'tibingen. Annoyed, however, by the jealousy of several of his colleagues, he resigned in 1732. In 1733, duke Charles Alexander taking the reins of government, he was again made counsellor. In 1736 the king of Prussia made him privy counsellor and professor of jurisprudence at the University of Frankfort-on-the-Oder. In 1739 he resigned also this position in consequence of some disputes with his colleagues, and retired into private life at Ebersdorf. During the eight years he stayed there he was employed by several princes on highly important missions; thus in 1741 he represented the elector of Treves in the long discussions which preceded the election of emperor Charles VII. In 1747, after refusing to approve the religious changes introduced by count Zinzendorf, he accepted the arch- chancellorship of Hesse Homburg, on the condition that he should be allowed to carry out his liberal views concerning government and political economy; and when this privilege was subsequently taken from him, he resigned his office and settled at Hanau, where he founded, in 1749, a professional school for young men destined for administration service. He afterwards became the legal adviser of Wurtemberg; and having in that capacity opposed the arbitrary measures of the prime minister, he was arrested July 12, 1759, and retained five years in prison, without judgment. Liberated by the Aulic Council in September 1764, he resumed his functions, in which he continued six years longer, and then retired from official life. He died at Stuttgard September 30, 1785. Among his works and pamphlets, numbering over five hundred volumes, covering, besides legal subjects, also the department of practical religion, especially hymnology, those of his writings deserve special mention which have more or less relation to ecclesiastical law and humanitarian objects; such are: Merkwurdige Reichshofrath Conclusa (Francf. 1726, 8 volumes, 8vo): — Bibliotheca juris publici (Stuttg. 1729-1734, 3 volumes 8vo): — Miscellanea juridico-historica (Francf. 1729-1730, 2 volumes, 8vo): — Grundriss d. heutigen Staatsverfassung von Deutschland (Tubing. 1731, 8vo; six editions since): — Einleitung in den Reichshofraths-Process (Francf. 1733-1737, 4 volumes, 8vo): —Syntagma dissertationum Jus publicum Germanicum illustrantium (Tubing. 1735, 4to): — Corpus juris evangelicorum ecclesiasticum (Zullichau, 1737-1738, 2 volumes, 4to): — Altes deutsches Staatsrecht (Nuremb. 1737-1754, 53 parts, 4to): — Alte u. neue Reichshofraths Conclusa in causis illustribus (Francf. 1743-1746, 3 parts, 8vo): — Opuscula academica selecta Juris capita explicantia
(Francf. 1745, 4to): — Deutsches Staatsarchiv (Francf. 1751-1757, 13 parts, 4to): — Neues deutsches Staatsrecht (Stuttg. 1766-1772, 20 volumes, 4to, with 3 volumes of supplement [Francf. 1781-1782, 3 volumes, 4to], and an Index, 1775): — Vermischte Nachrichten v. reichsritterschaftlichen Sachen (Nuremb. 1772, 6 parts, 8vo): — Beitrage zu reichsritferschqftlichen Sachen (Ulm, 1775, 4 parts, 8vo): — Abhandlungen uber verschiedene Reichsmaterien (Ulm, 1772-1778, 5 volumes, 4to): — Reichsstadtisches Magazin (Ulm, 1774-1775, 2 volumes, 8vo): — Neueste Geschichte der unmittelbaren Reichsritterschaft (Ulm, 1775-1776, 2 volumes, 8vo); — Erlauterung des Westphalischen Friedens (Erlangen, 1775-1776, 2 parts, 4to): — Versuch des neuesten europaischen Volkerrechts in Friedens-und Kriegszeiten (Francf. 1777-1780,10 volumes, 8vo): — Betrachtungen uber die Wahlcapitulation Josephs II (Francf. 1778, 2 volumes, 4to): — Beitrage zu dem neuesten europaischen Volkerrechte (Tubing. 1787, 5 parts, 8vo), etc. See Lebensgeschichte Mosers (autobiography [Francf. 1777-1783], 4 parts, 8vo); Ledderhose, Aus dem Leben J.v. Moser's (2d ed. 1852); Grtineisen, in Piper's Kirchen-Kalender, 1852; Weidlich, Nachrichten von jetztlebenden Rechtsgelehrten, volume 2; Hirsching, Hist. lit. Handbuch; Herzog, Real-Encyklop. 10:32; Hoefer, Nouv. Biog. Generale, 36:719; Bullet. Theol. October 1869, page 310. (J.H.W.)