Moschus (Μόσχος), or, as Photius calls him, Josanes, the sona of Maloschus, surnamed Ε᾿γκρατής, or, what appears to be a corruption rather than translation of that epithet, Eviratus, was born about 550, and was at first a monk in the monastery of St. Theodosius of Jerusalem. He afterwards lived among the anchorites in the desert on the banks of the Jordan, and subsequently: filled the office of canonarchus in the convent of St. Saba. After visiting a large number of monasteries in Syria and Egypt, he, together with his friend Sophronius, afterwards patriarch of Jerusalem, came to Alexandria, where they enjoyed the sincere friendship of John the Almsgiver (q.v.), one of the best of the patriarchs of the Eastern Church, who esteemed them as fathers in Christ, obeying them in all things. After preaching at Alexandria for some time, Moschus travelled to Cyprus, Samos, and finally to Rome, attacking everywhere the heresy of Severus Acephalus. At Rome he applied himself, in connection with his friend and colaborer, Sophronius, to the composition of a work giving an account of the life of the monks of that age down to the time of Heraclius. It is dedicated to Sophronius and John of Damascus; and Nicephorus assigned Sophronius himself as the author from which it has been supposed that it was in reality mainly his work, though the name of Joannes Moschus was allowed to stand as that of the writer. It is, however, more probable that Moschus and Sophronius were co-laborers in this work as well as in their missionary journeys. , The work was entitled Λειμών or Λειμωγάριον, or Νεὸς παράδεισος, and is still better known under the title of Prsatum Spirituale. In that edition it is divided into 219 chapters. Photius speaks of it as consisting of 304 διηγήματα, but mentions that in other manuscripts it was divided into a larger number of chapters. In compiling it Moschus did not confine himself to giving the results of his own observations, but availed himself of the labors of his predecessors in the same field. His narratives contain a plentiful sprinkling of the marvellous. "The style of the work," as Photius says, "is mean and unpolished;" but nevertheless it contains some valuable facts in regard to doctrines, heresies, Church- discipline, and especially monachism of those times. Moschus died at Rome, and Bollandus gives A.D. 620 as the date of his decease. The above-mentioned work was first published in an Italian translation, and incorporated in several collections of lives of the saints. The Latin, translation of Ambrosius Camaldulensis is in the seventh volume of Alovsius Lipsomannus (Venice, 1558). It appeared in Greek and Latin in the second volume of the Auctarium Bibl. Patrum Ducaeanum (Paris, 1644, 1654). See Smith, Dict. of Greek and Roman Biogr. and Mythol. s.v.; Fleury, Hist. Eccles. ad an. 614 sq.; Sardagne, Indic. P.P. (Ratisb. 1772); Photius, Cod. Page 199; Fabricius, Bibl. Greca, 5, cap. 16; 8:201 sq.; 10:124; Voss, De Hist. Graec. 2:220; Hamburger, Zuverldssige Nachrichten, 3:469; Saxe, Onomast. litt. 2:67; Kurtz, Handbuch d. allgem. Kirchengesch. 1:2, 499; Basse, Grundriss d. christ. Litt. 1:190 sq.; Du Pin, Nouvelle Bibl. des Auteurs Eccles. 11:57 sq.; Ceillier, Hist. des Auteurs Sacres, 17:610 sq.

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