Mineralogy This science, like all others of modern date, was in a very imperfect state among the Hebrews. Hence the sacred writers speak of minerals without any scientific classification, and according to their merely external characteristics. This occasions the utmost difficulty in identifying any but the commonest mineral substances. In precious stones, particularly, this vagueness of name and description precludes the possibility of any certainty as to the actual mineral intended, or, rather, leads to the presumption that in most instances no one substance is denoted, but that the name is generic, including all stones of the same general appearance, color, hardness, etc. SEE GEM. The following is a list of the mineral productions mentioned in the Bible, with their probable modern representatives. For details, see each word in its place.

Achlamah Amethyst "amethyst." Astro Alabaster "alabaster." Amethustos Amethyst "amethyst." Arguros Silver "silver." Bahat. Marble "red marble." Bareketh Emerald? "carbuncle." Barzel Iron "iron." Bedd Alloy? "tin" Bedolach Bdellium "bdellium." Berullos Beryl "beryl." Betser Ore "gold." Bor, Borith} Alkali "soap," et Chalkedon Chalcedony "chalcedony." Chalkolibdnon Electrum "fine brass." Chalkos Copper "brass." Challamish Flint "flint," etc. Chashmaal Burnished Copper " amber." Chemar Bitumen "slime." Chol Sand "sand." Chrusolethos Chrysolite "chrysolite." Chrusoprasos Chrysoprase "chrysoprase." Chrusos Gold "gold." Dar Pearl-stone "white marble." Ekdach Carbuncle "carbuncle." Gabish Crystal "pearl." Gir Lime "chalk." Gophrth Sulphur "brimstone." Hals Salt "salt." Huakinthos Hyacinth "jacinth." Huilos Glass "glass." Jaspis Jasper "jasper."

Kadkod Ruby "agate." Kerach Crystal "crystal." Keseph Silver "silver." Kethem, Virgin Gold "gold." Krustallos Crystal "crystal." Leshem Opal? "ligure." Margarites Pearl "pearl." Marnuros Marble "marble." Melach Salt "salt." Nechash, Nechosheth Copper "brass." Nether Nitre "nitre.' Nophek Emerald? "emerald." O'dem Garnet "sardius." Ophereth Lead "lead." Paldah Steel torch." Paz Refined Gold "fine gold." Pitdah Topaz? "topaz." Puk Antimony "paint." Sappheiros, sapphire "sapphire." Sardinos sapphire "sardius." Sardios Carnelian "sardine." Sardonux Sardonyx "Sardonyx." Shaish Alabaster "marble." Shamir Diamond "diamond," etc. Shasher Red Ochre "vermilion." Shebo Agate? "agate." Shesh White Marble "marble." Shoham Onyx? "onyx." Sidros Iron "iron." Sig Scoriae, etc "dross." Smaragdos Emerald "emerald." Sochereth Spotted Marble "black marble." Tarshish Topaz? "bervl." Theion Brimstone "brimstone." Topazion. Topaz "topaz."

Tsar Nodule "flint." Yahalon.… Onyx? "diamond." Yashepheth Jasper "jasper. Zahab Gold "gold." Zekuketh Glass "crystal."

See Rosenmuller, Biblical Mineralogy and Botany (Edinb. 1846, 12mo); Moore, Ancient Mineralogy (N.Y. 1834, 12mo).

Topical Outlines Nave's Bible Topics International Standard Bible Encyclopedia Online King James Bible King James Dictionary

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