Midrash By way of supplement, we add here the following works, belonging to the Midrashic literature:

I. Exegetical.

1. Agadath Bereshith, on Genesis, in eighty-three sections (Venice, 1618). See Zunz, Gottesdienstliche Vortrage, page 256; Steinschneider, Catalogus Librorum Hebr. in Bibl. Bodl. 3727-3729.

See also the International Standard Bible Encyclopedia.

2. Moses had Darshan of Narbonne, of the 11th century, wrote annotations on some books of the Bible. Ravmund Martini often quotes him in the Pugio Fidei. See Zunz, u.s. 287-293; Pusey, in Introduction to 53rd Chapter of Isaiah, according to the Jewish Interpreters, volume 2 (Oxford, 1877); Neubauer, The Book of Tobit (ibid. 1878), page 7-9, 20- 24.

3. Midrash Hashkem, on the Pentateuch, probably of the 10th century (Zunz, page 281). The part pertaining to Exodus was edited after a Munich MS. by Freimann, also with the Latin title, Vehishir, Opus Continens Midrashim et Halachoth, etc. (Leipsic, 1873).

4. Midrash Jonah, published at Prague in 1595. See Zunz, pages 270, 271.

II. Halaciic Midrash, viz. Sheeltoth (i.e., questions) of Rabbi Acha of Shabcha (about 750), on laws and usages, as contained in the Pentateuch. Best edition is that published at Dyhrerrnfurth in 1786, with the commentary of Jesaiah Berlin or Pik (q.v.). See Zunz, pages 56, 96, 343; Steinschneider, page 4330.

III. Historical Haggadoth, viz. 1. Seder Olam (q.v.). 2. Megillath Taanith, a calendar containing the non-festive days of the 2d century. Comp. Schmilg, Ueber Entstehung und historischen Werth des. Siegeskalenders Megillath Taanith (Leipsic, 1874). See Braun, Entstehupng und Werth der Megillath Taanith, in Gratz, Monatsschrift. 1876, pages 375-384, 410-418. 445-460; Wolf, Bibl. Hebr. 1:68 sq., 384 sq., 2:1375 s.v. 3:1195 sq. 4:1024; Zunz, pages 127, 128; Ewald, Gesch. d. Volkes Israel, 4:497 sq., 7:402 sq.; Gratz, Gesch. d. Juden, 3:415-428; Fiirst, Bibl. Jud. 1:9; Derenbourg, Historie de la Palestine, pages 439-446, giving the text and a French translation.

3. Josippon (q.v.). 4. Sepher ha-Jashar, a history from Adam to the Judges, written, perhaps, in the 12th century (Venice, 1625). See Zunz, pages 154-156; Steinschneider, pages 3581-3586.

5. Midrash Vayissu, wars of the sons of Jacob with the Canaanites and Esau, printed in Beth ham-Midrash (ed. Jellinek), 3. See Zunz, page 145.

6. Pesach-hagada, for the Easter festival. See Zunz, page 126; Steinschneider, page 2671.

7. Midrash Petirath Aaron, and 8. Midrash Petiraths Moshe, on the last days of Moses and Aaron. See Zunz, page 146; Steinschneider, pages 3996-4000; Beth ham-Midrash, 1:6.

9. Kethib Eldad had-Dani (i.e., the Book of Eldad the Danite), towards the end of the 9th century, and containing the fable of the Jews bevond the river Sambation. See Beth ham-Midrash, 2, 3, 4; Steiinschneider, page 4934; Zunz, page 139.

10. Sepher Zerubbabel (q.v.). 11. Abba Gorion treats of the narrative as contained in the Book of Esther, printed in Beth ham-Midrash, 1. See Zunz, page 279.

12. Megillath Antiochos, on the Wars of the Asmontans. See Zunz, page 134. The Hebrew was often printed, see Steinschneider, pages 1382-1388. The Aramaic text was first published by Filipowski at the end of his Choice of Pearls (London, 1851); then by Sluzki (Warsaw,1863), and by Jellinekin Beth-ham-Midrash, 6. A new edition is in the course of preparation by Charles H. H. Wright, The Megillath Antiochos, a Jewish Apocryphon with the Chaldee Text, etc.

13. Midrash Ele Ezkerah, so called from the first words, "These will I remember," Ps 42:5 (Hebrew text), describes the martyrdom of ten eminent teachers. See Zunz, page 142 a; Steinschneider, pages 3730-3732; Beth ham-Midrash, 2:6.

IV. Of a purely legendary character are:

1. Midrash Vayosha, the tradition about Armilus (the Roman antichrist). See Zunz, page 282; Steinschneider, pages 3734-3739; Beth ham-Midrash, 1.

2. Midrash Esreh had-debaroth, on the Ten Commandments. See Zunz, page 142 d; Steinschneider, pages 3751, 4986 s; Beth kam-Midrash, 1.

3. Chibbur Maasioth (i.e., story-books). See Zunz, page 130 b; Steinschneider, page 3869 sq.; on the numerous Hebrew and Judaeo- German story-books, see ibid. pages 3869-3942.

V. Ethical Midrashim, viz.

1. The Alphabet of BenSira. SEE SIRA.

2. Derech Eretz and Derech Eretz Sutta. SEE TALMUD (volume 1, page 184).

3. Thanna de Be-Elijahu, a melange from the Bible, Talmud, and Prayer- books, thrown into the form of instructions by the prophet Elijah. See Zunz, pages 112-117; Steinschneider, pages 4111, 4112.

4. Midrash Themura. See Zunz, page 118; Steinschneider, page 3793; Bethham-Midrashi.

VI. Cabalistic, Mystic, Metaphysical, etc., Midrashim, viz.

1. The Book Jezirah. SEE JEZIRAH.

2. Alphabeth of Rabbi Akiba. See Zunz, page 168; Steinschneider, pages 3395-3401; Beth ham-Midrash, 3; Lat. transl. by Kircher in his OEdipus AEg. (Rome, 1652), 2:225; Bartolocci, Bibl. Rabbinica, 4:27; Furst, Bibl. Jud. 1:28 sq.

3. The Great and Small Halachoth. See Zunz, pages 166, 167; Steinschneider, pages 3457-3459.

4. Midrash Konen, a kind of romantic cosmology. See Zunz, page 169; Steinschneider, pages 3743-3745; Beth ham-Midrash, 2.

5. Sepher Raziel (which must be distinguished from a later "Sepher Raziel hag-gadol," a kind of commentary on the book Jezirah). See Zunz, page 187; Steinschneider, page 4042.

Collections of Mia'ashim. — Ad. Jellinek, Beth-ham Midrash (volumes 1- 4, Leipsic, 1853-57; 5:6, Vienna, 1873, 1877); Horowitz, Sammlung Kleiner Midraschim (part 1, Frankfort and Berlin, 1881).

Translations of Midrashim. — In Latin many are found in Ugolino's Thesaurus Antiquitatum Sacrarum; in German, Wunsche's Bibliotheca Rabbinica comprises the Midrash Rabboth (on the Pentateuch and five Megilloth, i.e., Esther, Song of Solomon, Lamentations, Ecclesiastes, and Ruth), Proverbs, and Pesikta de Rab Kahanah (Leipsic, 1880 sq.). See Plitt-Herzog, Real Encyklop. s.v. (B.P.)

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