Meuschen, Johann Gerhard
Meuschen, Johann Gerhard a learned German Protestant theologian, was born at Osnabruck, in Westphalia, May 4, 1680, a son of the minister Johann Conrad Meuschen at the St. Catharinenkirche. He commenced his education at the gymnasium of his native town; in 1699 entered the University of Jena, where, in 1702, he secured the title of master of arts. In 1703, being about to take a position as professor at Copenhagen, but detained accidentally at Kiel, he was appointed professor. extraordinary of philosophy at the university of that place. He returned to Osnabriick in 1704, whither he was called by the St. Catharinenkirche as assistant to his father. In 1708 he was called to the Hague as pastor of the Lutheran congregation of that place, and here he labored until 1716, when he went to Hanau as chief court and city minister, with the character of counsellor of the consistory; in 1720 he was appointed clerical superintendent of the district of Hanau-Lichtenberg. In 1723, after having refused several important offers made to him, he removed to Coburg as ecclesiastical counsellor, superintendent-general, and professor of theology, and died there' December 15,1743. Meuschen was a decided opponent of the papists, and especially of the Jesuits; and had to suffer considerably from their animosity towards him. One of his pamphlets against the machinations of Jesuitism, Nugae venales Rullenses, was even publicly destroyed by fire under the hands of the executioner. The larger part of his works are of an ascetic tendency. The most important of his productions are: Postilla mythica, and Die neu eroffnete Bahn des wahren Christenthums: — Madonna et santa casa di Laretto, oder historische Beschreibung der lieben Frauen und des heiligen Houses zu Loretto (Jena, 1702, 8vo): — Diss. academica de Cynisis philosophis (Kilon. 1703, 4to): — Diss. de praejudicio auctoritatis (ibid. 1704, 4to): — Diss. de antiquo et moderno ritu salutandi sternutantes (ibid. 1704, 4to): — Diss. de fabis Pythagoricis mysticis (ibid. 1704, 4to): — Anweisung zur Verleugnung der Welt und seiner selbst (Osnabrtick, 1706, 12mo): — Das hohe Geheimniss der Geburt Christi in der Seele (Amsterdam, 1709, 8vo): — Die in der ersten Kirche, gebrauchliche apostolische Consecration des heil. Abendmahls, aus den Patribus und Kirchengeschichten erwiesen.
Meuschen was a very superior student in the ancient and Oriental languages, and his contributions to exegetical theology are perhaps among the most valuable productions of his age and country. His best works in the field of Biblical literature are: Diatribe de Nasi principe et directore Synedrii Magni Hebraeorum (Coburg, 1724, 4to): — Novum Testamentum e Talmude illustratum (Leip. 1736, 4to): — Bibliotheca medici sacri, seu recensio scriptorum qui Scripturam Sacram ex medicina et philosophia naturali illustrartunt (The Hague, 1712, 8vo). He also edited Eygas's Chronicon Universale, under the title Herml. Eygantis Ord. minor. flores temporum s. chronicon universale ab anno Christi ad A.D. 1340 et adhinc ad a. 1513 continuatum a M. Eysenhart; editum prazemisse glossario Latinitatis ferreae J.C.G. Meuschenii (Lugd. Batav. 1743, 4to). See Programma funebre in Meuschenium (in the Acta Historico Ecclesiastica [Leipsic, volume 7]); Strieder, Hessische gelehrten geschichte, volume 9; Gotten, Gelehrtes Europa, volumes 2 and 3. (J.H.W.)