Market (מִעֲרָב, maarab'), a mercantile term, found only in Ezekiel 27 (rendered "merchandise," except in ver. 13, 17,19, 25), in several senses:
(a) properly barter, and so trade, traffic (ver. 9, 27);
(b) place of barter, zmart (ver. 12, 13, 17, 19);
(c) gain, wealth, acquired by traffic (ver. 27, 34; plur. ver. 33, perh. precious wares), like סִחִר, "merchandise," and עַזָּבוֹן, "fair," "ware." In the N. Test. the word agora (ἀγορά), thus rendered ("market-place" in Mt 20:3; Mr 12:38; Lu 7:32; Ac 16:19), denotes generally any place of public resort in towns and cities where the people came together; and hence more specially it signifies
(a) a public place, a broad street, etc. (Mt 11:16; Mt 20:3; Mt 23:7; Mr 6:56; Mr 12:38; Lu 7:32; Lu 11:43; Lu 20:46);
(b) ajo ruin or market-place, where goods were exposed for sale, and assemblies or public trials held (Ac 16:19; Ac 17:17). In Mr 7:4 it is doubtful whether ἀγορά denotes the market itself, or is put for that which is brought from the market; but the known customs of the Jews suggest a preference of the former signification. From this is derived the term
agorceus (ἀγοραῖος), properly signifying the things belonging to, or persons frequenting the agora; improperly rendered "in law" in Ac 19:38, where it is applied to the days on which public trials were held in the forum; and in Ac 17:5 (where it is rendered "baser sort") it denotes idlers, or persons lounging about in the markets and other places of public resort. There is a peculiar force in this application of the word, when we recollect that the market-places or bazaars of the East were, and are at this day, the constant resort of unoccupied people, the idle, and the newsmongers.
In very early periods markets were held at or near the gates of cities, sometimes within and sometimes without the walls. Here commodities were exposed for sale, either in the open air or in tents (2Ki 7:18). It is still not unusual in the East for the wholesale market for country produce and cattle to be held (for a short time in the early part of the morning) at the gates of towns; but manufactured goods and various sorts of fruits are retailed in the bazaars within the towns. In the time of our Savior, as we learn from Josephus, the markets were enclosed in the same manner as the modern Eastern bazaars, which are shut at night, and contain traders' shops disposed in rows or streets; and in large towns the dealers in particular commodities are confined to certain streets. That this was also the case in the time of the prophet Jeremiah, we may infer from his expression, "the bakers' street" (Jer 37:21). That a close connection existed between those of the same craft, we learn incidentally from Ne 3:32. In rebuilding Jerusalem after the exile, "the goldsmiths and the merchants" acted together in repairing the walls. Josephus calls the valley between Mounts Zion and Moriah the 'Tyropoeon (τυροποιῶν), i.e. the valley "of the cheesemakers." In like manner there is mentioned the valley of Charashim, or "the craftsmen" (1Ch 4:14; Ne 11:35). Josephus also mentions a street of the meat- dealers. The streets of Eastern cities are generally distinguished from each other, not by the separate names which they bear, but by the sort of traffic or business carried on in them. Thus at Cairo and other large Oriental cities we hear of the market of the butchers, of the fruit-dealers, the copper-ware sellers, the jewelers, and so on; each consisting of a row of shops on each side of the street devoted to that particular kind of trade (Hackett, Illustra. of Script, p. 61). SEE BARGAIN; SEE BAZAAR; SEE COMMERCE; SEE MERCHANT.